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Preview: ADS (authors="ACCOMAZZI")

ADS (authors="ACCOMAZZI")



The SAO/NASA ADS Abstract service provides a search system for the Astronomy and Physics literature



 



Frey, K.: The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus: Semantic Metadata for Astronomy and Astrophysics
Several different controlled vocabularies have been developed and used by the astronomical community, each designed to serve a specific need and a specific group. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) attempts to provide a highly structured controlled vocabulary that will be relevant and useful across the entire discipline, regardless of content or platform. As two major use cases for the UAT include classifying articles and data, we examine the UAT in comparison with the Astronomical Subject Keywords used by major publications and the JWST Science Keywords used by STScI's Astronomer's Proposal Tool.



Accomazzi, A.: ADS Bumblebee comes of age
The ADS Team has been working on a new system architecture and user interface named “ADS Bumblebee” since 2015. The new system presents many advantages over the traditional ADS interface and search engine (“ADS Classic”). A new, state of the art search engine features a number of new capabilities such as full-text search, advanced citation queries, filtering of results and scalable analytics for any search results. Its services are built on a cloud computing platform which can be easily scaled to match user demand. The Bumblebee user interface is a rich javascript application which leverages the features of the search engine and integrates a number of additional visualizations such as co-author and co-citation networks which provide a hierarchical view of research groups and research topics, respectively. Displays of paper analytics provide views of the basic article metrics (citations, reads, and age). All visualizations are interactive and provide ways to further refine search results. This new search system, which has been in beta for the past three years, has now matured to the point that it provides feature and content parity with ADS Classic, and has become the recommended way to access ADS content and services. Following a successful transition to Bumblebee, the use of ADS Classic will be discouraged starting in 2018 and phased out in 2019. You can access our new interface at https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu



Accomazzi, A.: The role of the ADS in software discovery and citation
As the primary index of scholarly content in astronomy and physics, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is collaborating with the AAS journals and the Zenodo repository in an effort to promote the preservation of scientific software used in astronomy research and its citation in scholarly publications. In this talk I will discuss how ADS is updating its service infrastructure to allow for the publication, indexing, and citation of software records in scientific articles.



Krstovski, K.: Multilingual Topic Models
Scientific publications have evolved several features for mitigating vocabulary mismatch when indexing, retrieving, and computing similarity between articles. These mitigation strategies range from simply focusing on high-value article sections, such as titles and abstracts, to assigning keywords, often from controlled vocabularies, either manually or through automatic annotation. Various document representation schemes possess different cost-benefit tradeoffs. In this paper, we propose to model different representations of the same article as translations of each other, all generated from a common latent representation in a multilingual topic model. We start with a methodological overview on latent variable models for parallel document representations that could be used across many information science tasks. We then show how solving the inference problem of mapping diverse representations into a shared topic space allows us to evaluate representations based on how topically similar they are to the original article. In addition, our proposed approach provides means to discover where different concept vocabularies require improvement.



Accomazzi, A.: New ADS Functionality for the Curator
In this paper we provide an update concerning the operations of the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), its services and user interface, and the content currently indexed in its database. As the primary information system used by researchers in Astronomy, the ADS aims to provide a comprehensive index of all scholarly resources appearing in the literature. With the current effort in our community to support data and software citations, we discuss what steps the ADS is taking to provide the needed infrastructure in collaboration with publishers and data providers. A new API provides access to the ADS search interface, metrics, and libraries allowing users to programmatically automate discovery and curation tasks. The new ADS interface supports a greater integration of content and services with a variety of partners, including ORCID claiming, indexing of SIMBAD objects, and article graphics from a variety of publishers. Finally, we highlight how librarians can facilitate the ingest of gray literature that they curate into our system.



Rebull, L. M.: NASA's Long-Term Astrophysics Data Archives
NASA regards data handling and archiving as an integral part of space missions, and has a strong track record of serving astrophysics data to the public, beginning with the the IRAS satellite in 1983. Archives enable a major science return on the significant investment required to develop a space mission. In fact, the presence and accessibility of an archive can more than double the number of papers resulting from the data. In order for the community to be able to use the data, they have to be able to find the data (ease of access) and interpret the data (ease of use). Funding of archival research (e.g., the ADAP program) is also important not only for making scientific progress, but also for encouraging authors to deliver data products back to the archives to be used in future studies. NASA has also enabled a robust system that can be maintained over the long term, through technical innovation and careful attention to resource allocation. This article provides a brief overview of some of NASA's major astrophysics archive systems, including IRSA, MAST, HEASARC, KOA, NED, the Exoplanet Archive, and ADS.



McGlynn, T.: Providing comprehensive and consistent access to astronomical observatory archive data: the NASA archive model
Since the turn of the millennium a constant concern of astronomical archives have begun providing data to the public through standardized protocols unifying data from disparate physical sources and wavebands across the electromagnetic spectrum into an astronomical virtual observatory (VO). In October 2014, NASA began support for the NASA Astronomical Virtual Observatories (NAVO) program to coordinate the efforts of NASA astronomy archives in providing data to users through implementation of protocols agreed within the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A major goal of the NAVO collaboration has been to step back from a piecemeal implementation of IVOA standards and define what the appropriate presence for the US and NASA astronomy archives in the VO should be. This includes evaluating what optional capabilities in the standards need to be supported, the specific versions of standards that should be used, and returning feedback to the IVOA, to support modifications as needed. We discuss a standard archive model developed by the NAVO for data archive presence in the virtual observatory built upon a consistent framework of standards defined by the IVOA. Our standard model provides for discovery of resources through the VO registries, access to observation and object data, downloads of image and spectral data and general access to archival datasets. It defines specific protocol versions, minimum capabilities, and all dependencies. The model will evolve as the capabilities of the virtual observatory and needs of the community change.



Accomazzi, A.: Aggregation and Linking of Observational Metadata in the ADS
We discuss current efforts behind the curation of observing proposals, archive bibliographies, and data links in the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). The primary data in the ADS is the bibliographic content from scholarly articles in Astronomy and Physics, which ADS aggregates from publishers, arXiv and conference proceeding sites. This core bibliographic information is then further enriched by ADS via the generation of citations and usage data, and through the aggregation of external resources from astronomy data archives and libraries. Important sources of such additional information are the metadata describing observing proposals and high level data products, which, once ingested in ADS, become easily discoverable and citeable by the science community. Bibliographic studies have shown that the integration of links between data archives and the ADS provides greater visibility to data products and increased citations to the literature associated with them.






Accomazzi, A.: ADS Services in support of the Discovery, Management and Evaluation of Science Data
The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has long been used as a discovery platform for the scientific literature in Astronomy and Physics. With the addition of records describing datasets linked to publications, observing proposals and software used in refereed astronomy papers, the ADS is now increasingly used to find, access and cite an wider number of scientific resources. In this talk, I will discuss the recent efforts involving the indexing of software metadata, and our ongoing discussions with publishers in support of software and data citation. I will demonstrate the use of ADS's new services in support of discovery and evaluation of individual researchers as well as archival data products.



Chyla, R.: ADS 2.0: New Architecture, API and Services
The ADS platform is undergoing the biggest rewrite of its 20-year history. While several components have been added to its architecture over the past couple of years, this talk will concentrate on the underpinnings of ADS's search layer and its API. To illustrate the design of the components in the new system, we will show how the new ADS user interface is built exclusively on top of the API using RESTful web services. Taking one step further, we will discuss how we plan to expose the treasure trove of information hosted by ADS (10 million records and fulltext for much of the Astronomy and Physics refereed literature) to partners interested in using this API. This will provide you (and your intelligent applications) with access to ADS's underlying data to enable the extraction of new knowledge and the ingestion of these results back into the ADS. Using this framework, researchers could run controlled experiments with content extraction, machine learning, natural language processing, etc. In this talk, we will discuss what is already implemented, what will be available soon, and where we are going next.



Accomazzi, A.: Curation and integration of observational metadata in ADS
This presentation discusses the current curation of archive bibliographies and their indexing in the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Integration of these bibliographies provides convenient cross-linking of resources between ADS and the data archives, affording greater visibility to both data products and the literature associated with them. There are practical incentives behind this effort: it has been shown that astronomy articles which provide links to on-line datasets have a citation advantage over similar articles which don’t link to data. Additionally, the availability of paper-based metrics makes it possible for archivists and program managers use them in order to assess the impact of an instrument, facility, funding or observing program.The primary data curated by ADS is bibliographic information provided by publishers or harvested by ADS from conference proceeding sites and repositories. This core bibliographic information is then further enriched by ADS via the generation of citations and usage data, and through the aggregation of external bibliographic information. Important sources of such additional information are the metadata describing observing proposals from the major missions and archives, the curated bibliographies for data centers, and the sets of links between archival observations and published papers.While ADS solicits and welcomes the inclusion of this data from US and foreign data centers, the curation of bibliographies, observing proposals and links to data products is left to the archives which host the data and which have the expertise and resources to properly maintain them. In this regard, the role of ADS is one of resource aggregation through crowdsourced curation, providing a lightweight discovery mechanism through its search capabilities. While limited in scope, this level of aggregation can still be quite useful in supporting the discovery and selection of data products associated with publications. For instance, a user can use ADS to find papers which have been classified in the bibliography for HST, Chandra, and Spitzer, which typically yields multi-spectral studies making use of data from NASA’s Great Observatories. I will discuss how curators and institutions can participate in this effort.



Accomazzi, A.: The NASA Astrophysics Data System joins the Revolution
Whether or not scholarly publications are going through an evolution or revolution, one comforting certainty remains: the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is here to help the working astronomer and librarian navigate through the increasingly complex communication environment we find ourselves in. Born as a bibliographic database, today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and physics. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles, enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments and the ingest of bibliographies and data links maintained by astronomy institutions and data archives. In addition, ADS generates and maintains citation and co-readership networks to support discovery and bibliometric analysis.In this talk I will summarize new and ongoing curation activities and technology developments of the ADS in the face of the ever-changing world of scholarly publishing and the trends in information-sharing behavior of astronomers. Recent curation efforts include the indexing of non-standard scholarly content (such as software packages, IVOA documents and standards, and NASA award proposals); the indexing of additional content (full-text of articles, acknowledgments, affiliations, ORCID ids); and enhanced support for bibliographic groups and data links. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface which provides access to a variety of ADS microservices, a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming.



Rots, A. H.: Bibliographies and Data Archives: a Rich Data Mining Tool
Observatory bibliographies have traditionally served to provide a record of accomplishments for the managers' reports. However, by linking the published articles with the individual datasets that they used and present, we have the opportunity to join the bibliographic metadata (including keywords, subjects, objects, data references from other observatories, etc.) with the metadata associated with the observational datasets. This creates a very rich information field that is ripe for far more sophisticated datamining than the two repositories (publications and data) would afford individually.We have been maintaining such an extensive bibliography for the Chandra Data Archive that is complete for the entire mission.The linking is implemented through the use of persistent dataset identifiers (PID). We have used the PID set defined by the NASA Astrophysics Data Centers since their introduction a decade ago, as there were no obvious viable alternatives at the time, but these could readily be translated into more modern PIDs, such as DOI. We welcome the submission of higher level data products (especially those associated with publications) by our users. The bibliography allows seamless data discovery in the literature and the data repository, with the benefit of this wealth of metadata.With PIDs defined for datasets and articles, the next step is obviously to link data across repositories covering multiple missions and different parts of the spectrum.The next enticing possibility is to extend the functionality of the PIDs, allowing them to drill down into complex datasets (and that includes articles) to extract specific bits and pieces, by adding a level of more sophisticated intelligence in data discovery through PIDs.This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center. It depends critically on the services provided by the ADS, which is funded by NASA Grant NNX12AG54G.



Grant, C. S.: Enabling Meaningful Affiliation Searches in the ADS
For many years, users have wanted to search affiliations in the ADS in order to build institutional databases and to help with author disambiguation. Although we currently provide this capability upon request, we have yet to incorporate it as part of the operational Abstract Service. This is because it cannot be used reliably, primarily because of the lack of uniform representation of the affiliation data. In an effort to make affiliation searches more meaningful, we have designed a two-tiered hierarchy of standard institutional names based on Ringgold identifiers, with the expectation that this will enable us to implement a search by institution, which will work for the vast majority of institutions. It is our intention to provide the capability of searching the ADS both by standard affiliation name and original affiliation string, as well as to enable autosuggest of affiliations as a means of helping to disambiguate author identification. Some institutions are likely to require manual work, and we encourage interested librarians to assist us in standardizing the representation of their institutions in the affiliation field.



Frey, K.: Management of the Unified Astronomy Thesaurus
The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable, and community-supported thesaurus of astronomical and astrophysical concepts and their relationships. Management of the UAT is based on a community-supported approach. This will ensure that the thesaurus stays current by allowing users to suggest an addition or revision. These suggestions will then be subjected to a thorough expert review process before being accepted for addition to the UAT or rejected. Many leading astronomical institutions, professional associations, journal publishers, learned societies, and data repositories support the UAT as a standard astronomical terminology.



Accomazzi, A.: ADS: The Next Generation Search Platform
Four years after the last LISA meeting, the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) finds itself in the middle of major changes to the infrastructure and contents of its database. In this paper we highlight a number of features of great importance to librarians and discuss the additional functionality that we are currently developing. Our citation coverage has doubled since 2010 and now consists of over 70 million citations. We are normalizing the affiliation information in our records and we have started collecting and linking funding sources with papers in our system. At the same time, we are undergoing major technology changes in the ADS platform. We have rolled out and are now enhancing a new high-performance search engine capable of performing full-text as well as metadata searches using an intuitive query language. We are currently able to index acknowledgments, affiliations, citations, and funding sources. While this effort is still ongoing, some of its benefits are already available through the ADS Labs user interface and API at http://adslabs.org/adsabs/.



Thompson, D. M.: Saving the Orphaned Astronomical Literature
A large portion of the astronomical research of the 19th and early 20th centuries was reported in publications written and distributed by individual observatories. Many of these collections were not widely distributed and complete sets of these volumes are now difficult to locate. The ADS has taken on the effort to put these publications online and make them searchable. In this paper I will outline the project and discuss some of the highlights and challenges the ADS has encountered over the duration of the project.



Egret, D.: Using ADS for Creating Bibliographies of Research Institutions
Institutions often have a need for maintaining "institutional bibliographies," a list of all papers published by individuals affiliated with the institution. Using the Observatoire de Paris (France) as an example, we show how this can be done, using the services of the ADS and other bibliographic databases. In this specific case, we are able to quantify the success rate in creating the extensive list of the scientific output of the institution by each source database. Our analysis helps identify the current limitations and ambiguities in the contents and format of the affiliation/address field, as produced by the authors and modified by journal editors and database managers. We advocate for the development of an authoritative list of astronomical institutions that can be used by the ADS and publishers as a controlled field in order to significantly improve the efficiency of affiliation queries.



Henneken, E. A.: Computing and Using Metrics in the ADS
Finding measures for research impact, be it for individuals, institutions, instruments, or projects, has gained a lot of popularity. There are more papers written than ever on new impact measures, and problems with existing measures are being pointed out on a regular basis. Funding agencies require impact statistics in their reports, job candidates incorporate them in their resumes, and publication metrics have even been used in at least one recent court case. To support this need for research impact indicators, the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has developed a service that provides a broad overview of various impact measures. In this paper we discuss how the ADS can be used to quench the thirst for impact measures. We will also discuss a couple of the lesser-known indicators in the metrics overview and the main issues to be aware of when compiling publication-based metrics in the ADS, namely author name ambiguity and citation incompleteness.



Henneken, E. A.: Online Activity Around Scholarly Astronomy Literature - A Discussion of Altmetrics
So, your research is mentioned or gets discussed in social media, in blogs and other online channels. Do you care? Should you care? Will this exposure result in better science? Researchers probably should care, and most likely policy makers already care, because it matters how research, funded by them, is being portrayed in society. We have pretty solid ideas about how to quantify the impact of research on itself. This has been studied for decades in the fields of informetrics, bibliometrics and scientometrics. But how do you quantify the societal impact of research? You will need to assume that this impact can be measured in principle, and that is possible to come up with a recipe that quantifies this impact. Assuming that there is a societal impact seems quite reasonable for most disciplines in science. It is definitely true for parts of astronomy and physics. Just think of the attention given to the LHC or to the hunt for exoplanets. Enter the concept of "alternative metrics", or "altmetrics". As a result of the growing interest in altmetrics, various services (like the websites impactstory.org and altmetric.com) claim to have found a way to quantify the societal impact of research, either in a person-centric or publication-centric way. On this poster we explore, using data provided by altmetric.com, how astronomy fits in this altmetrics picture. How do popular science articles compare to those in the core astronomy journals? Is there any correlation between the altmetric measure and indicators like downloads, reads or citations? We briefly discuss the benefits that altmetrics might offer and the pitfalls involved in quantifying such measures.



Accomazzi, A.: Improved Functionality and Curation Support in the ADS
In this poster we describe the developments of the new ADS platform over the past year, focusing on the functionality which improves its discovery and curation capabilities.The ADS Application Programming Interface (API) is being updated to support authenticated access to the entire suite of ADS services, in addition to the search functionality itself. This allows programmatic access to resources which are specific to a user or class of users.A new interface, built directly on top of the API, now provides a more intuitive search experience and takes into account the best practices in web usability and responsive design. The interface now incorporates in-line views of graphics from the AAS Astroexplorer and the ADS All-Sky Survey image collections.The ADS Private Libraries, first introduced over 10 years ago, are now being enhanced to allow the bookmarking, tagging and annotation of records of interest. In addition, libraries can be shared with one or more ADS users, providing an easy way to collaborate in the curation of lists of papers. A library can also be explicitly made public and shared at large via the publishing of its URL.In collaboration with the AAS, the ADS plans to support the adoption of ORCID identifiers by implementing a plugin which will simplify the import of papers in ORCID via a query to the ADS API. Deeper integration between the two systems will depend on available resources and feedback from the community.



Accomazzi, A.: The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus
The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institute of Physics, and SPIE. We describe the effort behind the creation of the UAT and the process through which we plan to maintain the document updated through broad community participation.



Allen, A.: You've Written a Cool Astronomy Code! Now What Do You Do with It?
Now that you've written a useful astronomy code for your soon-to-be-published research, you have to figure out what you want to do with it. Our suggestion? Share it! This presentation highlights the means and benefits of sharing your code. Make your code citable -- submit it to the Astrophysics Source Code Library and have it indexed by ADS! The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL) is a free online registry of source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. With over 700 codes, it is continuing its rapid growth, with an average of 17 new codes a month. The editors seek out codes for inclusion; indexing by ADS improves the discoverability of codes and provides a way to cite codes as separate entries, especially codes without papers that describe them.



Accomazzi, A.: Introducing ADS 2.0
In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.



Mann, R. G.: Astronomy and Computing: A New Journal for the Astronomical Computing Community
We introduce Astronomy and Computing (A&C), a new, peer-reviewed journal for the expanding community of people whose work focuses on the application of computer science and information technology within astronomy, rather than on astronomical research per se. A&C arose from a BoF discussion at the ADASS XX conference in Boston, and from the ADASS community will come many of the people who will write, referee and read the papers published in A&C. In this paper, we outline the aims and scope of A&C, together with a summary of the types of paper we envisage it publishing and the criteria that will be used to referee them, and we invite the ADASS community to help us develop these in more detail and to shape a journal that serves the astronomical computing community well.



Accomazzi, A.: Astronomy and Computing: A new journal for the astronomical computing community
We introduce Astronomy and Computing, a new journal for the growing population of people working in the domain where astronomy overlaps with computer science and information technology. The journal aims to provide a new communication channel within that community, which is not well served by current journals, and to help secure recognition of its true importance within modern astronomy. In this inaugural editorial, we describe the rationale for creating the journal, outline its scope and ambitions, and seek input from the community in defining in detail how the journal should work towards its high-level goals.



Accomazzi, A.: New Features in ADS Labs
The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org



Gray, N.: Creation and Maintenance of a Unified Astronomy Thesaurus
We describe a collaborative effort to update and unify the various vocabularies currently in use in Astronomy into a single thesaurus that can be further developed and updated through broad community participation. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) will be an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics thesauri into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the Astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing and the American Institute of Physics. While the AAS has assumed formal ownership of the UAT, the work will be available under a Creative Commons License, ensuring its widest use while protecting the intellectual property of the contributors. We envision that development and maintenance will be stewarded by a broad group of parties having a direct stake in it. This includes professional associations (IVOA, IAU), learned societies (AAS, RAS), publishers (IOP, AIP), librarians and other curators working for major astronomy institutes and data archives. While the impetus behind the creation of a single thesaurus has been the wish to support semantic enrichment of the literature, we expect that use of the UAT (along with other vocabularies and ontologies currently being developed) will be much broader and will have a greater impact on discovery of both literatue and data products.



Henneken, E.: Search the AGU journals in the ADS Full Text Service
ADS Labs is a platform that Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System has been developing over the last two years. ADS Labs now includes a full-text search interface which users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes present and past astronomical literatures, publications from the main physics journals, and all content published by the AGU. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org. The ADS is funded by NASA grant NNX12AG54G.



Accomazzi, A.: Telescope bibliographies: an essential component of archival data management and operations
Assessing the impact of astronomical facilities rests upon an evaluation of the scientific discoveries which their data have enabled. Telescope bibliographies, which link data products with the literature, provide a way to use bibliometrics as an impact measure for the underlying observations. In this paper we argue that the creation and maintenance of telescope bibliographies should be considered an integral part of an observatory's operations. We review the existing tools, services, and workflows which support these curation activities, giving an estimate of the effort and expertise required to maintain an archive-based telescope bibliography.



Accomazzi, A.: Why Don't We Already Have an Integrated Framework for the Publication and Preservation of All Data Products?
Astronomy has long had a working network of archives supporting the curation of publications and data. The discipline has already created many of the features which perplex other areas of science: (1) data repositories: (supra)national institutes, dedicated to large projects; a culture of user-contributed data; practical experience of long-term data preservation; (2) dataset identifiers: the community has already piloted experiments, knows what can undermine these efforts, and is participating in the development of next-generation standards; (3) citation of datasets in papers: the community has an innovative and expanding infrastructure for the curation of data and bibliographic resources, and through them a community of authors and editors familiar with such electronic publication efforts; as well, it has experimented with next-generation web standards (e.g. the Semantic Web); (4) publisher buy-in: publishers in this area have been willing to innovate within the constraints of their commercial imperatives. What can possibly be missing? Why don't we have an integrated framework for the publication and preservation of all data products already? Are there technical barriers? We don't believe so. Are there cultural or commercial forces inhibiting this? We aren't aware of any. This Birds of a Feather session (BoF) attempted to identify existing barriers to the creation of such a framework, and attempted to identify the parties or groups which can contribute to the creation of a VO-powered data-publishing framework.



Henneken, E. A.: Linking to Data: Effect on Citation Rates in Astronomy
Is there a difference in citation rates between articles that were published with links to data and articles that were not? Besides being interesting from a purely academic point of view, this question is also highly relevant for the process of furthering science. Data sharing not only helps the process of verification of claims, but also the discovery of new findings in archival data. However, linking to data still is a far cry away from being a “practice”, especially where it comes to authors providing these links during the writing and submission process. You need to have both a willingness and a publication mechanism in order to create such a practice. Showing that articles with links to data get higher citation rates might increase the willingness of scientists to take the extra steps of linking data sources to their publications. In this presentation we will show this is indeed the case: articles with links to data result in higher citation rates than articles without such links.



Henneken, E. A.: The ADS in the Information Age - Impact on Discovery
The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) grew up with and has been riding the waves of the Information Age, closely monitoring and anticipating the needs of its end-users. By now, all professional astronomers are using the ADS on a daily basis, and a substantial fraction have been using it for their entire professional career. In addition to being an indispensable tool for professional scientists, the ADS also moved into the public domain, as a tool for science education. In this paper we will highlight and discuss some aspects indicative of the impact the ADS has had on research and the access to scholarly publications.



Henneken, E. A.: Online Discovery: Search Paradigms and the Art of Literature Exploration
Furthering science depends critically on discoverability of literature, and therefore on accurate and intelligent search tools. In this presentation we discuss new search paradigms and techniques explored in "ADS Labs," offered by the ADS.



Accomazzi, A.: Semantic Interlinking of Resources in the Virtual Observatory Era
In the coming era of data-intensive science, it will be increasingly important to be able to seamlessly move between scientific results, the data analyzed in them, and the processes used to produce them. As observations, derived data products, publications, and object metadata are curated by different projects and archived in different locations, establishing the proper linkages between these resources and describing their relationships becomes an essential activity in their curation and preservation. In this paper we describe initial efforts to create a semantic knowledge base allowing easier integration and linking of the body of heterogeneous astronomical resources which we call the Virtual Observatory (VO). The ultimate goal of this effort is the creation of a semantic layer over existing resources, allowing applications to cross boundaries between archives. The proposed approach follows the current best practices in Semantic Computing and the architecture of the web, allowing the use of off-the-shelf technologies and providing a path for VO resources to become part of the global web of linked data.






Accomazzi, A.: Introducing ADS Labs
ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org



Eichhorn, G.: Full-text Indexing Of All Springer Astronomy And Physics Journals In The ADS
Springer, as a publisher of scientific and technical literature, has been collaborating with the ADS since the very beginning of the ADS Abstract Service. Once of the culminations of this collaboration was the scanning of all back issues of Solar Physics. We are now in the process of enabling full text searching of all Springer journals in Astronomy and Physics through the ADS. This agreement between Springer and the ADS will be based on a similar agreement between Springer and INSPIRE. That agreement allows full text searching of Springer High Energy Physics journals in SPIRES and its successor INSPIRE, a database of the High Energy Physics literature developed and managed by a collaboration between CERN, DESY, Fermilab, and SLAC. Springer will provide the full text of all the Astronomy and Physics journals to the ADS for indexing. Display of search results will include snippets of text that includes the search terms, to allow the user to immediately see the context of the searched terms in the articles. Such a full text search will allow greatly enhanced search functionality and should allow much more detailed and in-depth searches of the relevant literature at Springer, one of the largest publishers of scientific-technical literature. We are currently in the process to determine whether this full text search capability can be extended to scientific books as well.



Conti, A.: The Astronomer's H-R diagram
Most people who've taken an astronomy course are familiar with the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. It was developed to show the relationships between the temperature (or colour) of a star and its luminosity. Following this premise and an original idea by Stuart Lowe, we asked ourselves if american astronomer as a group have a "Main Career Sequence" in the space of Peer Reviewed papers and "absolute" Google index. Here we expand on Stuart's original idea examining several cuts in publication and Google parameter space with the help of proper ADS data



Henneken, E. A.: Automatic Recommendation of Astronomy Literature
Authors publish because they want to transfer information. An essential ingredient for this transfer is being able to find this information. As the Literature Universe is expanding rapidly, finding your way in this deluge of information can be a daunting task. How do you find what you are looking for in a reasonable amount of time and more importantly, information you could not have found using the normal information discovery model? When you have some prior information (like author names and/or subject keywords), you can use your favorite search engine and apply that information as filters. There are also more sophisticated services like the myADS service of the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), that do intelligent filtering for you and provide you with customized suggestions. Alternatively, you can ask somebody you consider to be an expert. On this poster we describe a method (the "recommender system") that mimics this information "ask the export" discovery model, argue that it is practically feasible to incorporate this method as a useful addition to the existing ADS service and show that it is able to produce meaningful results. The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NNX09AB39G.



Accomazzi, A.: Linking Literature and Data: Status Report and Future Efforts
In the current era of data-intensive science, it is increasingly important for researchers to be able to have access to published results, the supporting data, and the processes used to produce them. Six years ago, recognizing this need, the American Astronomical Society and the Astrophysics Data Centers Executive Committee (ADEC) sponsored an effort to facilitate the annotation and linking of datasets during the publishing process, with limited success. I will review the status of this effort and describe a new, more general one now being considered in the context of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory.



Henneken, E. A.: Finding Your Literature Match - A Recommender System
The universe of potentially interesting, searchable literature is expanding continuously. Besides the normal expansion, there is an additional influx of literature because of interdisciplinary boundaries becoming more and more diffuse. Hence, the need for accurate, efficient and intelligent search tools is bigger than ever. Even with a sophisticated search engine, looking for information can still result in overwhelming results. An overload of information has the intrinsic danger of scaring visitors away, and any organization, for-profit or not-for-profit, in the business of providing scholarly information wants to capture and keep the attention of its target audience. Publishers and search engine engineers alike will benefit from a service that is able to provide visitors with recommendations that closely meet their interests. Providing visitors with special deals, new options and highlights may be interesting to a certain degree, but what makes more sense (especially from a commercial point of view) than to let visitors do most of the work by the mere action of making choices? Hiring psychics is not an option, so a technological solution is needed to recommend items that a visitor is likely to be looking for. In this presentation we will introduce such a solution and argue that it is practically feasible to incorporate this approach into a useful addition to any information retrieval system with enough usage.



Accomazzi, A.: Future Professional Communication in Astronomy II
The present volume gathers together the talks presented at the second colloquium on the Future Professional Communication in Astronomy (FPCAII), held at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, MA) on 13-14 April 2010. This meeting provided a forum for editors, publishers, scientists, librarians and officers of learned societies to discuss the future of the field. The program included talks from leading researchers and practitioners and drew a crowd of approximately 50 attendees from 10 countries. These proceedings contain contributions from invited and contributed talks from leaders in the field, touching on a number of topics. Among them: The role of disciplinary repositories such as ADS and arXiv in astronomy and the physical sciences; Current status and future of Open Access Publishing models and their impact on astronomy and astrophysics publishing; Emerging trends in scientific article publishing: semantic annotations, multimedia content, links to data products hosted by astrophysics archives; Novel approaches to the evaluation of facilities and projects based on bibliometric indicators; Impact of Government mandates, Privacy laws, and Intellectual Property Rights on the evolving digital publishing environment in astronomy; Communicating astronomy to the public: the experience of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.



Kurtz, M. J.: Using Multipartite Graphs for Recommendation and Discovery
The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System exists at the nexus of a dense system of interacting and interlinked information networks. The syntactic and the semantic content of this multipartite graph structure can be combined to provide very specific research recommendations to the scientist/user.



Accomazzi, A.: Astronomy 3.0 Style
Over the next decade, we will witness the development of a new infrastructure in support of data-intensive scientific research, which includes Astronomy. This new networked environment will offer both challenges and opportunities to our community and has the potential to transform the way data are described, curated and preserved. Based on the lessons learned during the development and management of the ADS, a case is made for adopting the emerging technologies and practices of the Semantic Web to support the way Astronomy research will be conducted. Examples of how small, incremental steps can, in the aggregate, make a significant difference in the provision and repurposing of astronomical data are provided.



Henneken, E. A.: How the Literature is Used A View Through Citation and Usage Statistics of the ADS
The data holdings, usage and citation records of the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) form a unique environment for bibliometric studies. Here we will highlight one such study. Using the citation and usage statistics from the NASA Astrophysics Data System, we study the impact of offering a paper as an electronic pre-print ("e-print") on the arXiv e-print repository, prior to its publication in a scholarly journal. We will address the following questions for astronomy: are people reading the e-prints from arXiv instead of the journal articles? Are e-prints read in a different way than journal articles? What is the impact of offering a paper as e-print prior to its publication in a scholarly journal? We will show that in astronomy, the e-prints are not being read instead of the journal article. As soon as the journal article is published, users prefer to read the article. Our analysis confirms that journal articles which were submitted as e-print on arXiv, prior to their publication, show higher citation rates than journal articles that were not submitted as e-print.



Henneken, E. A.: Access to the Online Planetary Research Literature
The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private library capabilities (a useful tool for building bibliographies), plus access to scanned pages of published articles. The ADS also provides powerful search capabilities, allowing users to find e.g. the most instructive or most important articles on a given subject . For the Planetary Sciences, the citation statistics of the ADS have improved considerably with the inclusion of the references from Elsevier journals, including Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, and Earth and Planetary Science Letters. We currently have about 78 journals convering the planetary and space sciences (Advances in Space Research, Icarus, Solar Physics, Astrophusics and Space Science, JGRE, Meteoritics, to name a few). Currently, this set of journals represents about 180,000 articles and 1.1 million references. Penetration into the Solar Physics, Planetary Sciences and Geophysics community has increased significantly. During the period 2004-2008, user access to JGR and Icarus increased by a factor of 4.4, while e.g. access to the Astrophysical Journal "only" increased by a factor of 1.8.



Henneken, E. A.: Exploring the Astronomy Literature Landscape
Although powerful, list searches have their limitations. Using second order bibliometric operators \citep{kurtz02} in the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), one is able to easily find review papers or the most popular papers on a given subject. Because of their one-dimensionality, lists cannot display a rich context for a given paper. The best analogy is probably that of a map. A point on a map has a certain contextual meaning, depending on the information being displayed on that map. We can form a landscape based on the astronomy literature in various ways. A set of astronomy papers can be regarded as an ensemble of points that interact with each other in a certain way. This interaction can, for example, represent the citations between papers, the number of keywords papers have in common, a similarity between abstracts of papers or a combination of these. As a result, papers get clustered into modules. In other words, we compress the complex network of hundreds of thousands of papers and, for example, millions of citations into a set of modules with an information flow between these modules. A variety of methods are available to perform this clustering. Often, the actual network is compared to a null model, which is used to calculate an expected number of edges. Our approach \citep{rosvall07} is different in the sense that we use information theory and require that the optimal clustering for a given network minimizes the description length of the original network.



Osborn, W.: Making Archival Data Available for Research in the Next Decade and Beyond
A position paper on the need to preserve and have electronically available astronomy's rich heritage of archived observations



Henneken, E. A.: The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature
The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.



Henneken, E. A.: A Tool to Explore the Landscape of Astronomy Literature
Citations between papers form a directed, modular network. We have used information theory to partition such a network into modules, by minimizing its description length (Henneken et al. 2008, Rosvall et al. 2007). Using citations between astronomy articles, these modules help to define a thematic map of the astronomy literature. We present a tool to interactively explore this landscape. It allows the user to see the connection between the various thematic modules and to explore the contents of individual modules. This tool adds valuable citation-oriented exploration to the existing list-oriented exploration of the astronomy literature. References Henneken et al. (2008). "Exploring the Astronomy Literature Landscape", in ADASS XVIII, to be published Rosvall et al. (2007). "An information-theoretic framework for resolving community structure in complex networks", PNAS, 104, 7327 The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NNG06GG68G.



Accomazzi, A.: Goal-Oriented Subject Search in the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Different users have different goals when searching the literature for a subject. Some may want to read the most recent papers on a topic, while others may be interested in the most important or instructive. The ADS announces the availability of new subject search capabilities which allow users to choose among six different types of subject matter queries. In addition to providing the capability of finding the most relevant, most recent, and most important papers on a particular topic, we are now introducing the capability to query for the most popular, most useful and most instructive papers on the entire subject area. This new functionality is based on the techniques used to compute the myADS's notifications and puts them under direct user control. The ADS is funded by NASA grant NNG06GG68G.



Henneken, E. A.: Use of astronomical literature - A report on usage patterns
In this paper we present a number of metrics for usage of the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Since the ADS is used by the entire astronomical community, these are indicative of how the astronomical literature is used. We will show how the use of the ADS has changed both quantitatively and qualitatively. We will also show that different types of users access the system in different ways. Finally, we show how use of the ADS has evolved over the years in various regions of the world.



White, R. L.: The High Impact of Astronomical Data Archives
Archives are widely recognized as a valuable resource for astronomy, but statistics on their use indicates they are even more important than most astronomers realize. Obviously much of the science from survey projects such as SDSS relies on the archive. Perhaps more surprisingly, archival data are also a major contributor to the science from targeted, PI-driven missions such as HST, Chandra, Spitzer and the ground-based observatories. Archival research currently accounts for half of the ~1200 Hubble and Chandra science papers published each year, and the use of the archive continues to increase. The archival data products are, in the long term, as important as the PI science programs. It is vital to recognize the large impact archives can have on the science generated by missions and observatories. The value of the archive should be an important factor in the establishment of new projects. Future missions and observatories should not only budget adequate resources to support a robust archive, but they also should consider the effects of mission design and operations decisions on the archive. Additional funding both for archive users and archive centers -- particularly with an eye to enabling cross-archive, multiwavelength science -- is a relatively inexpensive way to increase the science output from our major investments in large projects.









Kurtz, M.: The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Decennial Report
Eight years after the ADS first appeared the last decadal survey wrote: "NASA's initiative for the Astrophysics Data System has vastly increased the accessibility of the scientific literature for astronomers. NASA deserves credit for this valuable initiative and is urged to continue it." Here we summarize some of the changes concerning the ADS which have occurred in the past ten years, and we describe the current status of the ADS. We then point out two areas where the ADS is building an improved capability which could benefit from a policy statement of support in the ASTRO2010 report. These are: The Semantic Interlinking of Astronomy Observations and Datasets and The Indexing of the Full Text of Astronomy Research Publications.



Borne, K.: Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy
Data volumes from multiple sky surveys have grown from gigabytes into terabytes during the past decade, and will grow from terabytes into tens (or hundreds) of petabytes in the next decade. This exponential growth of new data both enables and challenges effective astronomical research, requiring new approaches. Thus far, astronomy has tended to address these challenges in an informal and ad hoc manner, with the necessary special expertise being assigned to e-Science or survey science. However, we see an even wider scope and therefore promote a broader vision of this data-driven revolution in astronomical research. For astronomy to effectively cope with and reap the maximum scientific return from existing and future large sky surveys, facilities, and data-producing projects, we need our own information science specialists. We therefore recommend the formal creation, recognition, and support of a major new discipline, which we call Astroinformatics. Astroinformatics includes a set of naturally-related specialties including data organization, data description, astronomical classification taxonomies, astronomical concept ontologies, data mining, machine learning, visualization, and astrostatistics. By virtue of its new stature, we propose that astronomy now needs to integrate Astroinformatics as a formal sub-discipline within agency funding plans, university departments, research programs, graduate training, and undergraduate education. Now is the time for the recognition of Astroinformatics as an essential methodology of astronomical research. The future of astronomy depends on it.



Accomazzi, A.: Towards a Resource-Centric Data Network for Astronomy
Over the past decade, astronomers have been using an increasingly larger number of web-based applications and archives to conduct their research. However, despite the early success in creating links across projects and data centers, the promise of a single integrated digital library environment supporting e-science in astronomy has proven elusive. While some of the issues hampering progress in this area are of technical nature, others are rooted in existing policies which should be re-analyzed if further rapid progress is to be made in this area. This paper describes a proposal that the NASA Astrophysics Data System project has put forth in order to improve its role as one of the primary discovery portals for astronomers, focusing on those aspects which could benefit from an increased level of involvement from the community, namely the effort to expose astronomy resources as linked data, and the harvesting of observational metadata.



Eichhorn, G.: Access to the literature and connection to on-line data
The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides access to the astronomical literature through the World Wide Web. It is a NASA funded project and access to all the ADS services is free to everybody world-wide. It can be accessed without login through any web browser. The ADS Abstract Service allows the searching of three databases with abstracts in Astronomy (including Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences, and Solar Physics), Physics/Geosciences, and the arXiv E-prints from Cornell, with a total of over 5 million references. The system also provides access to reference and citation information, links to on-line data, electronic journal articles, and other on-line information. The ADS Article Service contains the full articles for most of the astronomical literature back to volume 1. It contains the scanned pages of all the major Astronomy journals (Astrophysical Journal, Astronomical Journal, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, and Solar Physics), as well as most smaller journals back to volume 1. In order to improve access from different parts of the world, we have set up 12 mirror sites of the ADS in different countries in Europe, Asia, Australia and the Americas. The ADS is available at: http://ads.harvard.edu



Accomazzi, A.: The Astronomical Literature in its Full Glory
The ADS has undertaken the high-resolution digitization of color and grayscale content for journals available in its fulltext article archive. The original scans in the archive were created over 10 years ago by capturing journal pages as bitonal images, which provide poor detail for plates and illustrations. During the current phase of this effort we are focusing on updating the scans of the AAS journals (ApJ, ApJS and AJ), but intend to extend it to cover all the major astronomical publications. The digitization aims at creating preservation-quality digital images from the originals, and will be integrated into the on-screen viewing and printing functionality available in the ADS.



Grant, C. S.: The Recent Data Explosion in the ADS
In the past 12 months, we have added over a million records to the ADS Abstract Service. This is the equivalent of a 20% increase, or about double the rate of increase that the ADS has seen in recent years. This significant increase in size is due to the addition of several large datasets including historical data from many Springer astronomy and physics journals as well as bibliographic records from the full run of A&A Abstracts from the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut. The number of citations in the Abstract Service has seen an increase of more than 25%, bringing the total number of citations to over 25 million. Our recent agreement to index records from CrossRef will continue the data explosion in the ADS into 2008.



Kurtz, M. J.: Mapping The Astronomy Literature
Over time, scholarly publications become connected through measurable quantities like citations and co-readership. In this way, these publications define an ever-growing, complex network. Studies have shown that this type of network is characterized by a high degree of clustering. We have used this fact to our advantage. The clustering allows us to create context for search results and to create a powerful subject browsing environment. If you are new to a field, the cluster grouping will provide you with an intuitive interface to see the most relevant papers for a field. If you are an expert, the cluster view might give you insights on relations with other subjects, that otherwise will be difficult to discover.



Henneken, E. A.: Staying Up-to-date In The Planetary Sciences With myADS
Imagine having access to a free, electronic weekly newsletter, keeping you up-to-date with your field of interest. Wouldn't that be wonderful? Actually, there is such a service: myADS. You can totally customize myADS to your needs and interests. This powerful service provides you with a unique view of what is happening in your field of interest. The only thing you need to do is sign up and customize the service! The myADS service makes use of the powerful query capabilities of the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). It will allow you to create an overview of the most recent, most cited and most popular papers. Especially for the Planetary Sciences, the citation statistics of the ADS have improved considerably with the inclusion of the references from Elsevier journals, including Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, and Earth and Planetary Science Letters.



Henneken, E.: myADS-arXiv -- a Tailor-made, Open Access, Virtual Journal
The myADS-arXiv service provides the scientific community with a one stop shop for staying up-to-date with a researcher's field of interest. The service provides a powerful and unique filter on the enormous amount of bibliographic information added to the ADS on a daily basis. It also provides a complete view of the most relevant papers available in the subscriber's field of interest. With this service, the subscriber will get to know the latest developments, popular trends and the most important papers. This makes the service not only unique from a technical point of view, but also from a content point of view. On this poster we will argue why myADS-arXiv is a tailor-made, open access, virtual journal and we will illustrate its unique character.



Thompson, D. M.: Paper to Screen: Processing Historical Scans in the ADS
The NASA Astrophysics Data System in conjunction with the Wolbach Library at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is working on a project to microfilm historical observatory publications. The microfilm is then scanned for inclusion in the ADS. The ADS currently contains over 700,000 scanned pages of volumes of historical literature. Many of these volumes lack clear pagination or other bibliographic data that are necessary to take advantage of the searching capabilities of the ADS. This paper will address some of the interesting challenges that needed to be resolved during the processing of the Observatory Reports included in the ADS.



Grant, C. S.: Data in the ADS -- Understanding How to Use it Better
The Smithsonian/NASA ADS Abstract Service contains a wealth of data for astronomers and librarians alike, yet the vast majority of usage consists of rudimentary searches. Hints on how to obtain more focused search results by using more of the various capabilities of the ADS are presented, including searching by affiliation. We also discuss the classification of articles by content and by referee status.



Eichhorn, G.: Full Text Searching in the Astrophysics Data System
The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides a search system for the astronomy and physics scholarly literature. All major and many smaller astronomy journals that were published on paper have been scanned back to volume 1 and are available through the ADS free of charge. All scanned pages have been converted to text and can be searched through the ADS Full Text Search System. In addition, searches can be fanned out to several external search systems to include the literature published in electronic form. Results from the different search systems are combined into one results list.



Accomazzi, A.: Creation and Use of Citations in the ADS
With over 20 million records, the ADS citation database is regularly used by researchers and librarians to measure the scientific impact of individuals, groups, and institutions. In addition to the traditional sources of citations, the ADS has recently added references extracted from the arXiv e-prints on a nightly basis. We review the procedures used to harvest and identify the reference data used in the creation of citations, the policies and procedures that we follow to avoid double-counting and to eliminate contributions which may not be scholarly in nature. Finally, we describe how users and institutions can easily obtain quantitative citation data from the ADS, both interactively and via web-based programming tools.



Eichhorn, G.: Connectivity in the Astronomy Digital Library
The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides an extensive system of links between the literature and other on-line information. Recently, the journals of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and a group of NASA data centers have collaborated to provide more links between on-line data obtained by space missions and the on-line journals. Authors can now specify which data sets they have used in their article. This information is used by the participants to provide the links between the literature and the data.



Kurtz, M. J.: The Future of Technical Libraries
Technical libraries are currently experiencing very rapid change. In the near future their mission will change, their physical nature will change, and the skills of their employees will change. While some will not be able to make these changes, and will fail, others will lead us into a new era.



Accomazzi, A.: Closing the Loop: Linking Datasets to Publications and Back
With the mainstream adoption of references to datasets in astronomical manuscripts, researchers today are able to provide direct links from their papers to the original data that were used in their study. Following a process similar to the verification of references in manuscripts, publishers have been working with the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) to validate and maintain links to these datasets. Similarly, many astronomical data centers have been tracking publications based on the observations that they archive, and have been working with the ADS to maintain links between their datasets and the bibliographic records in question. In addition to providing a valuable service to ADS users, maintaining these correlations allows the data centers to evaluate the scientific impact of their missions. Until recently these two activities have evolved in parallel on independent tracks, with ADS playing a central role in bridging the connection between publishers and data centers. However, the ADS is now implementing the capability for all parties involved to find out which data links have been published with which manuscripts, and vice versa. This will allow data centers to harvest the ADS periodically to find out if there are new papers that reference datasets from their archives. In this paper we summarize the state of the dataset linking project and describe the new harvesting interface.



Eichhorn, G.: Connecting the literature with on-line data
Over the last few years there has been considerable progress in linking the published scholarly literature with on-line data. This will greatly help with data discovery and aid the efforts to the VO.



Eichhorn, G.: The ADS for Planetary Sciences
The ADS provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a quick search form, a notification service, and private library capabilities, plus access to 3.3 million scanned pages of published articles.



Kurtz, M.: myADS-arXiv: A fully customized, open access virtual journal
myADS-arXiv is a collaboration of the Astrophysics Data System group at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the arXiv group at Cornell University. The myADS-arXiv service provides a listing of those articles in physics or astronomy which have been posted in the last week which are of most interest to you. In essence myADS-arXiv is a free, weekly, fully customized (for each individual user) open access virtual journal which covers the most important, most recent papers in physics and astronomy. myADS-arXiv follows the same format as the existing myADS-Astronomy and myADS-Physics notification services. These services provide access to the most interesting (to you) recent journal articles in physics and astronomy. These are done in collaboration with nearly every publisher of physics or astronomy journals, including APS, AIP, AAS, RAS, IoP, EDP, World Scientific, Wiley, Springer, and Elsevier.



Henneken, E. A.: E-prints and journal articles in astronomy: a productive co-existence
Are the e-prints (electronic preprints) from the arXiv repository being used instead of journal articles? We show that the e-prints have not undermined the usage of journal papers from the four core journals in astrophysics. As soon as the journal article is published, the astronomical community prefers to read it and the use of e-prints through the NASA Astrophysics Data System drops to zero. This suggests that most astronomers have access to institutional subscriptions and that they choose to read the journal article. In other words, the e-prints have not undermined journal use in this community and thus currently do not pose a financial threat to publishers. Furthermore, we show that the half-life (the point at which the use of an article drops to half the use of a newly published article) for an e-print is shorter than for a journal paper.



Kurtz, M. J.: The New Physics and Astronomy Education Portal of the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System
The ADS announces the beta release of a new portal into the technical literature for physics and astronomy education. This project is being done in collaboration with ComPADRE. Currently the collection contains about 30,000 articles covering the Science Education literature; key journals in the collection include Research in Science Education, Physical Review Special Topics Physics Education Research, The Physics Teacher, The American Journal of Physics, Physics Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, The International Journal of Science Education. Several other journals are also included, including some from nearby fields, such as computer science and chemistry education. The system easily has the ability to include any individual article from the research literature of physics and astronomy (such as from the Physical Review or the Astrophysical Journal) either from current or historical research. We encourage educators to suggest such articles to us. This is the beta release of a new system; we encourage comments, critisms and suggestions.



Eichhorn, G.: New Searching Capability and OpenURL Linking in the ADS
The ADS is the search system of choice for the astronomical community. It also covers a large part of the physics and physics/astronomy education literature. In order to make access to this system as easy as possible, we developed a Google-like interface version of our search form. This one-field search parses the user input and automatically detects author names and year ranges. Firefox users can set up their browser to have this search field installed in the top right corner search field to have even easier access to the ADS search capability. The basic search is available from the ADS Homepage at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu To aid with access to subscription journals the ADS now supports OpenURL linking. If your library supports an OpenURL server, you can specify this server in the ADS preference settings. All links to journal articles will then automatically be directed to the OpenURL with the appropriate link information. We provide a selection of known OpenURL servers to choose from. If your server is not in this list, please send the necessary information to ads@cfa.harvard.edu and we will include it in our list. The ADS is funded by NASA grant NNG06GG68G.



Henneken, E. A.: Finding Astronomical Communities Through Co-readership Analysis
Whenever a large group of people are engaged in an activity, communities will form. The nature of these communities depends on the relationship considered. In the group of people who regularly use scholarly literature, a relationship like "person i and person j have cited the same paper" might reveal communities of people working in a particular field. On this poster, we will investigate the relationship "person i and person j have read the same paper". Using the data logs of the NASA/Smithsonian Astrophysics Data System (ADS), we first determine the population that will participate by requiring that a user queries the ADS at a certain rate. Next, we apply the relationship to this population. The result of this will be an abstract "relationship space", which we will describe in terms of various "representations". Examples of such "representations" are the projection of coread vectors onto Principal Components and the spectral density of the coread network. We will show that the coread relationship results in structure, we will describe this structure and we will provide a first attempt in the classification of this structure in terms of astronomical communities.



Eichhorn, G.: Google The ADS
The ADS provides a search system for over 4.8 million records in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, and Physics and 3.3 million scanned pages of the scholarly literature. In order to improve access to the ADS and to make searching easier, we allow Google to index the information in the ADS. Since many scientists use Google as their general search system, it makes it easier to also search the scientific literature that the ADS covers. HOWEVER, please be aware that Google does not index all the abstracts in the ADS. Their system crawls the ADS, but may miss some abstracts on a random basis. We therefore recommend for detailed searches to continue using the ADS search system directly. Since a one-field search system like Google seems to be popular, the ADS has developed such an interface to the ADS as well. The new interface allows you to specify word and author searches in one input field. Author names are detected automatically in the input. Years and year ranges are detected as well. This new interface is available on the ADS homepage or at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/quick_service.html



Henneken, E. A.: Effect of E-printing on Citation Rates in Astronomy and Physics
In this report we examine the change in citation behavior since the introduction of the arXiv e-print repository (Ginsparg, 2001). It has been observed that papers that initially appear as arXiv e-prints get cited more than papers that do not (Lawrence, 2001; Brody et al., 2004; Schwarz & Kennicutt, 2004; Kurtz et al., 2005a, Metcalfe, 2005). Using the citation statistics from the NASA-Smithsonian Astrophysics Data System (ADS; Kurtz et al., 1993, 2000), we confirm the findings from other studies, we examine the average citation rate to e-printed papers in the Astrophysical Journal, and we show that for a number of major astronomy and physics journals the most important papers are submitted to the arXiv e-print repository first.



Accomazzi, A.: Bibliographic Classification using the ADS Databases
We discuss two techniques used to characterize bibliographic records based on their similarity to and relationship with the contents of the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) databases. The first method has been used to classify input text as being relevant to one or more subject areas based on an analysis of the frequency distribution of its individual words. The second method has been used to classify existing records as being relevant to one or more databases based on the distribution of the papers citing them. Both techniques have proven to be valuable tools in assigning new and existing bibliographic records to different disciplines within the ADS databases.



Kurtz, M. J.: Intelligent Information Retrieval
Since it was first announced at ADASS 2 the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics System Abstract Service (ADS) has played a central role in the information seeking behavior of astronomers. Central to the ability of the ADS to act as a search and discovery tool is its role as metadata aggregator. Over the past 13 years the ADS has introduced many new techniques to facilitate information retrieval, broadly defined. We discuss some of these developments; with particular attention to how the ADS might interact with the virtual observatory, and to the new myADS-arXiv customized open access virtual journal. The ADS is at http://ads.harvard.edu



Eichhorn, G.: New Capabilities of the ADS Abstract Service
The ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in astronomy and physics. The ADS is free to anybody world-wide. New features have added significant new functionality to the ADS.



Eichhorn, G.: Customized Open Access Journal for Astronomy and Physics/Geosciences
The ADS provides a search system for over 4.4 million records. It covers astronomy, physics, and geosciences. We continue to extract a large number of references from article reference lists. We now have 18 million citing/cited reference pairs. During the last year we implemented an improved version of the "Private Library". This lets you collect articles in different private libraries. This is for instance useful when writing an article to collect all references for this article and have them available at the click of a button. We recently expanded our customized notification service, called myADS. This service lets you specify several queries that are executed against new entries in the database whenever the database is updated. This is basically an Open Access customized journal. It also informs about new citations to your articles. You can setup these notifications for the Astronomy, Physics/Geosciences, and arXiv e-print databases. The arXiv notification can be daily and/or weekly. This provides the user with a regular view of the relevant literature. The ADS now provides the capability to search the full text of all scanned articles in the ADS. In addition our users can select several other publishers for searching through the same interface. The results are collated and presented as a combined list of search results from all external search systems as well as the ADS internals full text search. The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NCC5-18.



Kurtz, M. J.: The significance of e-printed papers in Astronomy and Physics
Using the citation and read statistics from the NASA Astrophysical Data System (ADS), we investigate the significance and impact of pre-publishing a paper as e-print on the arXiv e-print server. It clearly follows that, since the introduction of these e-prints in 1992, their significance has increased to the level that currently the most important papers in astronomy and physics first appear as e-prints. We will illustrate this fact by looking at the 100 most cited papers over a number of years for a selection of journals in astronomy and physics. For a number of important physics and astronomy journals, over 80% of the 100 most cited papers was submitted as e-print. For some journals this number is currently higher than 95%. Using cites and reads statistics for Astrophysical Journal and Physical Review D papers, we will show that e-printed papers are read and cited significantly more than papers that have not been e-printed. We will illustrate the ``life'' of Astrophysical Journal papers by comparing the evolution of reads and citations for the e-print and associated paper. It follows that after the publication of the paper, the reads of and citations to the e-print taper off quickly. A similar analysis for Physical Review D papers shows that e-prints are cited longer after the paper has been cited. The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NCC5-189.



Eichhorn, G.: Enhancements to the ADS Abstract Service
In this poster we present new features and recent enhancements to the Astrophysics Data System (ADS) abstract service. These include: (1) The myADS-arXiv notification service, which presents users with lists of preprints relevant to their research topics on a daily or weekly basis; (2) The implementation of multiple ``Private Libraries," allowing each user to define different article collections at the click of a button; (3) An enhanced full-text query, which now searches not just the fulltext residing in the ADS article archive but also the content of all the major astronomical journals online; (4) The introduction of citation history plots for a given paper; (5) Improved author search capabilities allowing the specification of narrower queries. The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NCC5-189.



Eichhorn, G.: Customizations of the ADS
The ADS provides a search system for over 4.3 million records. We continue extracted a large number of references from article reference lists. We now have 18 million citing/cited reference pairs. During the last year we implemented an improved version of the ``Private Library". This lets you collectarticles in different private libraries. This is for instance useful when writing an article to collect all references for this article and have them available at the click of a button. We recently expanded our customized notification service, called myADS. This service lets you specify several queries that are executed against new entries in the database whenever the database is updated. It also informs about new citations to your articles. You can setup these notifications for the Astronomy, Physics, and arXiv e-print databases. The arXiv notification can be daily and/or weekly. The ADS is funded by NASA Grant NCC5-18.



Delmotte, N.: The ESO Telescope Bibliography Web Interface - Linking Publications and Observations
The ESO telescope bibliography links scientific papers based on VLT observations with underlying observing proposals and archival data. It can be queried through a web interface at ESO as well as through a filter at the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) from which active links lead to the ESO Archive. These services are prerequisites of the Virtual Observatory as they allow users to keep track of the entire lifetime of scientific proposals, from scheduling to observations and publications.



Eichhorn, G.: New Features in the ADS Abstract Service
The ADS provides free online access to over 4 million abstracts and over 3 million scanned pages of the astronomical, planetary and physics literature, including full text searching and personalized notification (myADS) at http://ads.harvard.edu



Kurtz, M. J.: The Effect of Use and Access on Citations
It has been shown (S. Lawrence, 2001, Nature, 411, 521) that journal articles which have been posted without charge on the internet are more heavily cited than those which have not been. Using data from the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ads.harvard.edu) and from the ArXiv e-print archive at Cornell University (arXiv.org) we examine the causes of this effect.



Kurtz, M. J.: The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information
The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System \citep{2005JASIS.tmp....2K} permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in detail the similarities and differences between the citation rate, the readership rate and the total citations for individual articles, and discuss some of the causes. Using the number of reads as a bibliometric measure for individuals, we introduce the read-cite diagram to provide a two-dimensional view of an individual's scientific productivity. We develop a simple model to account for an individual's reads and cites and use it to show that the position of a person in the read-cite diagram is a function of age, innate p[...]



Kurtz, M. J.: Worldwide Use and Impact of the NASA Astrophysics Data System Digital Library
The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. By combining data from the text, citation, and reference databases with data from the ADS readership logs we have been able to create Second Order Bibliometric Operators, a customizable class of collaborative filters which permits substantially improved accuracy in literature queries. Using the ADS usage logs along with membership statistics from the International Astronomical Union and data on the population and gross domestic product (GDP) we develop an accurate model for world-wide basic research where the number of scientists in a country is proportional to the GDP of that country, and the amount of basic research done by a country is proportional to the number of scientists in that country times that country's per capita GDP. We introduce the concept of utility time to measure the impact of the ADS/URANIA and the electronic astronomical library on astronomical research. We find that in 2002 it amounted to the equivalent of 736 FTE researchers, or 250 Million, or the astronomical research done in France.






Eichhorn, G.: New Features in the ADS
The ADS now provides a search system for close to 4 million records. We have recently extracted a large number of references from article reference lists. We now have over 16 million citing/cited reference pairs. During the last year we implemented a full text search system. This allows you to search the full text of all journals that we have scanned. This provides a unique way to find information, especially from the older literature. We recently imlemented a customized notification service, called myADS. This service lets you specify several queries that are executed against new entries in the database whenever the database is updated. It also informs about new citations to your articles and new preprints.



Eichhorn, G.: New Features in the ADS Abstract Service
The ADS now provides a search system for close to 4 million records. The data are organized in 4 databases, Astronomy/Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, Instrumentation, and ArXiv Preprints. The ADS is a NASA funded project and is free to use for everybody world-wide. We have recently extracted a large number of references from article reference lists. We now have over 16 million citing/cited reference pairs. This provides a very comprehensive citation database. During the last year we implemented a full text search system. This allows you to search the full text of all journals that we have scanned. This provides a unique way to find information, especially from the older literature. We recently implemented a customized notification service, called myADS. This service lets you specify several queries that are executed against new entries in the database whenever the database is updated. It also informs about new citations to your articles and new preprints, as well as what other articles are of interest to the users of the ADS. The ADS can be accessed at http://ads.harvard.edu



Accomazzi, A.: Publishing Links to Astronomical Data On-line
We discuss the design and implementation of a scheme enabling authors to refer and link to on-line datasets available from astronomical archives. This will provide the readers of electronic papers with direct access to the data discussed therein. The software tools used to create and maintain links from published papers to the datasets make use of Web-Services-based technology. The system has been designed in collaboration with the NASA Astrophysics Data Centers, the American Astronomical Society, and the University of Chicago Press, and will be maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System. More information about this project is available at: http://vo.ads.harvard.edu/dv.



Thompson, D. M.: The NASA ADS: Searching, Linking and More
The NASA ADS Abstract Service is a NASA-funded project which provides FREE World Wide Web abstract services. We currently have over 3.6 million references in four databases. All abstracts can be searched by author, title or abstract text words.



Eichhorn, G.: Full Text Searching and Customization in the NASA ADS Abstract Service
The ADS provides free online access to over 3.5 million abstracts and over 2.5 million scanned pages of the astronomical, planetary and physics literature, including full text searching and personalized notification (myADS) at http://ads.harvard.edu.