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Research highlights from the current issue of Science Magazine



Published: 2016-12-01T13:53:12-05:00

 



[Atmospheric Science] How new particles form

2016-12-02

New particle formation in the atmosphere produces around half of the cloud condensation nuclei that seed cloud droplets. Such particles have a pivotal role in determining the properties – [Read More]



[Galaxy Formation] A massive galaxy forming from molecular gas

2016-12-02

The most massive galaxies gather their stars by merging with smaller galaxies and by accreting gas, which is then consumed during star formation. Emonts et al. investigated – [Read More]



[Cancer] Running interference

2016-12-02

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) binds to receptors on different types of T cells. CD8+ T cells, which can kill tumor cells, have IL-2 receptors with two subunits. When IL-2 binds to – [Read More]



[Topological Matter] Shining light on a peculiar coupling

2016-12-02

One of the long-standing predictions regarding topological insulators is the magnetoelectric effect, a coupling between a material's magnetic and electric properties. Thanks to this – [Read More]



[Pain Research] Glial cells contribute to pain

2016-12-02

Pain hypersensitivity can spread to unaffected body regions immediately surrounding the initial insult. Sometimes it can even spread to the opposite site of the body or to large body – [Read More]



[Structural Biology] Zika virus is fit to be tied

2016-12-02

Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Other mosquito-born flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, encode noncoding subgenomic flavivirus – [Read More]



[Hematopoiesis] How to maintain hematopoietic stem cells

2016-12-02

Hematopoiesis provides the body with a continuous supply of blood cells (see the Perspective by Sommerkamp and Trumpp). Taya et al. report that amino acid content is important – [Read More]



[Vaccination] Protecting by changing the code

2016-12-02

Live attenuated vaccines can be very potent, but their potential to revert to their pathogenic form limits their use. In an attempt to get around this, Si et al. expanded the – [Read More]



[Oxidative Stress] Overactive antiviral responses in lupus

2016-12-02

Detection of viral RNAs causes oligomerization of mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, which leads to the production of type I interferons (IFNs). Buskiewicz et al.[Read More]



[Innate Immunity] Shared logic in diverse immune systems

2016-12-02

The innate immune systems of both plants and animals depend on the ability to recognize pathogen-derived molecules and stimulate a defense response. Jones et al. review how – [Read More]



[RNA Splicing] Tie me up, cut me down

2016-12-02

Group II in trons are mobile genetic elements found in all domains of life. They are large ribozymes that can excise themselves from host RNA. Costa et al. determined the structure – [Read More]



[Water Chemistry] Frame-by-frame view of acidic transport

2016-12-02

Protons in acidic solution constantly hop from one water molecule to the next. In between the hopping, controversy lingers over the extent to which the proton either sticks largely – [Read More]



[Neuroscience] Attention changes local brain activity

2016-12-02

There is a well-known correlation between arousal and neuronal activity in the brain. However, it is unclear how these general effects are reflected on a local scale. Engel et al.[Read More]



[Working Memory] How to reactivate forgotten memories

2016-12-02

Sophisticated techniques can decode stimulus representations for items held in a person's working memory. However, when subjects shift their attention toward something else, the neural – [Read More]



[Cell Exhaustion] The epigenetics of exhaustion

2016-12-02

During cancer or chronic infection, T cells become dysfunctional, eventually acquiring an “exhausted” phenotype. Immunotherapies aim to reverse this state. Using a mouse model of chr – [Read More]



[Epidemiology] How bats spread viruses

2016-12-02

Bats carry numerous viruses, such as rabies and Ebola, which they can transmit to humans. In a Perspective, Hayman highlights recent genetic studies showing that male vampire bats are – [Read More]



[Atherosclerosis] Letting SLE-Ping plaques lie

2016-12-02

Patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) are more likely to develop atherosclerosis than healthy individuals. Smith et al. hypothesized that – [Read More]