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Preview: Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery - Most Popular Articles

Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery - Most Popular Articles





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Orbital Radiotherapy Combined With Corticosteroid Treatment for Thyroid Eye Disease-Compressive Optic Neuropathy

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of orbital radiotherapy (ORT) in the treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED)–compressive optic neuropathy. Methods: A retrospective review of patients with corticosteroid-responsive compressive optic neuropathy due to TED treated with ORT. Study was conducted in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. One hundred four patients (163 orbits) with a mean age of 61.7 years met inclusion criteria. Seventy-four percent (77/104) were female, and 32.7% (34/104) were current or previous smokers. A total absorbed dose of 2000 cGy fractionated in 10 treatment doses over the course of 2 weeks was administered to the retroocular tissues according to a standard protocol. The primary end point was failure of ORT, defined as persistent optic neuropathy following completion of radiotherapy that mandated urgent orbital decompression surgery. Results: Ninety-eight of 104 (94%) patients or 152 of 163 (93.3%) orbits did not require orbital decompression surgery during the acute phase. Patients who responded successfully to ORT had similar improvements in visual acuity, color vision, Humphrey threshold visual field testing, and afferent pupillary defects compared with patients who failed ORT and underwent urgent decompression surgery. Only 36.7% of successfully treated patients ultimately underwent elective surgery, including orbital decompression, strabismus, or eyelid surgery, during the inactive phase of TED. Conclusions: The data from this study, the largest retrospective review reported to date, supports the use of ORT in eyes with corticosteroid-responsive TED–compressive optic neuropathy. ORT may favorably alter the natural history of active-phase TED by preventing recurrent compressive optic neuropathy after withdrawal of corticosteroids.



Rethinking Our Definition of Postoperative Success: A Comparative Analysis of Three Upper Eyelid Retraction Repair Techniques Using Novel Metrics to Capture Functional and Aesthetic Outcomes

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To compare 3 upper eyelid retraction repair techniques and introduce novel metrics, which enhance the analysis of postoperative aesthetic outcomes. Methods: Retrospective review with Image J 1.48 digital analysis of patients who underwent repair of thyroid-related upper eyelid retraction at the University of Iowa from 1996 to 2014 via 1 of 3 surgical techniques, septum-opening levator recession with Muellerectomy, modified septum-preserving levator recession with Muellerectomy, and modified septum-preserving full-thickness blepharotomy, was conducted. Photographs were obtained preoperatively, 3 to 6 months postoperatively, and at last follow up (>6 months) and evaluated by digital image analysis (denoted by “i”). Outcome measures assessed were marginal reflex distance (iMRD1), temporal-to-nasal ratio, tarsal platform show (iTPS), pupil to visible eyelid crease, brow fat span (iBFS), tarsal platform show to brow fat span ratio (iTPS:iBFS), and tarsal platform show minimizing power (iTPS-minimizing power). Results: A total of 121 eyelids (28 septum-opening levator recession with Muellerectomy, 66 septum-preserving levator recession with Muellerectomy, and 27 septum-preserving full-thickness blepharotomy) from 74 patients were evaluated with a mean follow up of 24.2 months. There were no statistically significant differences between techniques in terms of iMRD1 or temporal-to-nasal ratio reduction at either time point (intertechnique p values of 0.17 to >0.99). The percentage of eyelids from subjects undergoing bilateral intervention that achieved a final iMRD1 between 2.50 mm and 4.50 mm was similar (intertechnique p value of 0.23), with no difference regarding the number of subjects demonstrating iMRD1 symmetry within 1 mm (intertechnique p value of 0.15). Though iTPS elongation was greater at 3 to 6 months with septum-opening compared with the combined septum-preserving techniques (p value of 0.04), this difference was not maintained at final follow up (p value of >0.99). There was no difference in terms of iTPS symmetry at time of final follow up (intertechnique p value of 0.69). The pupil to visible eyelid crease was unchanged in all techniques (p values >0.99). Mean changes in iBFS at final follow up were −1.27 mm, −0.44 mm, and +0.55 mm for septum-opening levator recession with Muellerectomy, septum-preserving levator recession with Muellerectomy, and septum-preserving full-thickness blepharotomy (p values of 0.01, 0.49, and >0.99, respectively). Mean iTPS:iBFS ratios at final follow up were not statistically different between techniques (intertechnique p value of 0.10) and no difference in symmetry was demonstrated (intertechnique p value of 0.47). Median values for iTPS-minimizing power were: −0.83, −0.93, and −1.01 for septum-opening levator recession with Muellerectomy, septum-preserving levator recession with Muellerectomy, and septum-preserving full-thickness blepharotomy, respectively (intertechnique p value of 0.54). Conclusions: Each technique appropriately lowered the eyelid and improved contour without intertechnique variability. Septum-preserving techniques demonstrated less iTPS elongation initially, but this difference was not maintained. The visible eyelid crease height (pupil to visible eyelid crease) remained stable in all techniques, indicating that the iTPS elongation seen with each technique was secondary to reduction in iMRD1 and the iBFS reduction seen with septum-opening levator recession with Muellerectomy was due to brow descent. No intertechnique differences in the amount of iTPS elongation relative to iMRD1 reduction (i.e., the novel iTPS-minimizing power) were seen. Given that each procedure evaluated yielded similar results, technique selection may be guided by surgeon experience and preference.



Dilated Superior Ophthalmic Vein: Clinical and Radiographic Features of 113 Cases

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: Dilated superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is an uncommon radiographic finding. The authors review the presentation, etiology, radiography, and visual implications of 113 patients with dilated SOV. Methods: An observational case series and multicenter retrospective chart review were conducted. There were 113 patients with a dilated SOV. Outcome measures included patient demographics, clinical features, radiographic findings, diagnosis, and treatment, and treatment outcomes were assessed. Results: Cases included 75 women (66%) and 38 men (34%) with a mean age of 49 ± 24 years (range, 0.4–90 years). Diagnoses fell under 6 categories: vascular malformation (n = 92, 81%), venous thrombosis (n = 11, 10%), inflammatory (n = 6, 5%), traumatic hemorrhage (n = 2, 2%), lymphoproliferative (n = 1, 1%), and infectious (n = 1, 1%). Imaging modalities utilized included MRI (n = 98, 87%), digital subtraction angiography (n = 77, 68%), CT (n = 29, 26%), and ultrasonography (n = 4, 4%). Disease status at last follow up included no evidence of disease (n = 57, 50%), alive with persistent disease (n = 53, 47%), and expired from disease (n = 3, 3%). Treatment and management was tailored to the underlying disease process with a mean follow up of 18 months (range, 1 day to 180 months). Visual impairment observed at presentation and last follow up across all cases was 26% and 22%, respectively. Conclusion: Dilated SOV is a rare radiographic finding resulting from a wide spectrum of etiologies with clinical implications ranging from benign to sight- and life-threatening. Dilated SOV is most often found with dural-cavernous fistula or carotid-cavernous fistula, orbital or facial arteriovenous malformation, and venous thrombosis. Recognition of this finding and management of the underlying condition is critical.



Orbital Inclusion Cyst Formation 3 Years After Penetrating Orbital Trauma

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) No abstract available






Manuscript Reviewers 2017

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

No abstract available



Congenital Upper Eyelid Coloboma: Embryologic, Nomenclatorial, Nosologic, Etiologic, Pathogenetic, Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Management Perspectives

Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To review the recent literature and describe the authors’ experience with congenital upper eyelid coloboma. Methods: In this review, we will summarize the embryologic and etiopathogenetic bases of congenital upper eyelid coloboma, and study the published clinical reports. We will also attempt to briefly shed some light on the rarer syndromic curiosities associated with upper eyelid coloboma. Results: Congenital upper eyelid colobomas are one of the few nontraumatic oculoplastic emergencies that may occasionally present in the first few days of life with a corneal ulcer and may even present with impending perforation. They can present with or without corneopalpebral adhesions, may be isolated findings or a part of a larger spectrum of congenital anomalies as in the case of Fraser syndrome or Goldenhar syndrome, or could be associated with other rare curiosities that could challenge the clinician with a huge diagnostic dilemma. Conclusions: Existing literature dealing with congenital colobomas of the upper eyelid is fraught with nosologic problems, confusing etiologies, and overlapping clinical features. We attempted to clarify the salient clinical features, outline the management principles, and until a time in the not-so-distant future where advances in molecular genetic testing would help redefine the etiology and the diverse clinical spectrum of genetic diseases associated with upper eyelid colobomas, we propose a simplified classification scheme based on the relation of the coloboma to the cornea, the presence or absence of systemic features, and all the syndromic and nonsyndromic associations of congenital coloboma of the upper eyelid known today.



Supraorbital Leiomyoma

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) No abstract available



Ophthalmic Manifestations of Facial Dog Bites in Children

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To characterize ophthalmic manifestations and periocular injuries of pediatric facial dog bites. Methods: A retrospective review of all children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a dog bite to the face between January 1, 2003 and May 22, 2014 was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. Data on type and location of injury, surgical intervention, and complications were collected. Results: A total of 1,989 children aged 0.19 to 17 years were identified with dog bites. Dog bites to the face occurred in most patients (n = 1, 414 [71%]). Of those children with facial dog bite injuries, 230 (16%) suffered ophthalmic manifestations. The average age was 4.3 years. Eyelid injuries occurred in 227 (99%) of children, 47 (20%) sustained canalicular system injuries, 3 (1.3%) suffered corneal abrasions, and 2 patients sustained facial nerve injury resulting in lagophthalmos. No patients suffered vision loss. Complications occurred in 32 patients (14%), with the most common being epiphora in 9 patients (28%), upper eyelid ptosis in 8 (25%), and prominent scar formation in 4 patients (13%). Thirteen children (5.7%) needed one or more secondary procedure to correct complications. Conclusions: The authors report the clinical features and management on the largest series of ophthalmic and periocular injuries associated with pediatric facial dog bites. These injuries occur in about 1 in 6 dog bites to the face and primarily involve the ocular adnexa. Despite early and appropriate surgical management, complications and the need for revision surgery are relatively common.



Operating Room Fires in Oculoplastic Surgery

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: This study was performed to characterize the frequency, causes, and possible risk factors of operating room (OR) fires experienced by members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members, collecting data on surgical fires experienced by respondents throughout their careers. In addition, the questionnaire investigated viewpoints on OR fire safety, current practice patterns with oxygen delivery and surgical device usage, and management of patients referred after previous surgical fire exposure. Results: There were 258 participants in the survey. Eighty-three surgeons (32.2%) experienced at least 1 surgical fire in their careers. Most OR fires occurred during monitored sedation cases with oxygen delivered by nasal cannula underneath drapes completely covering the head and use of a monopolar or battery-operated device. Patient hair and skin were the most common fuel sources, and most of the injuries were limited to singing of facial hair. Regarding current practice patterns, monopolar, bipolar, and battery-powered disposable devices were the most frequently used electrosurgery and electrocautery tools. Patients seen after an OR fire with another surgeon generally experienced more severe burns requiring hospitalization and subsequent procedures. Conclusions: Many oculoplastic surgeons have experienced OR fires during their careers. Certain surgical and anesthetic techniques, particularly the delivery of supplemental oxygen underneath surgical drapes and the use of monopolar electrosurgery and battery-powered electrocautery, may be associated with increased fire risk. While most of the reported OR fires did not result in significant patient injury, caution must be taken to prevent these potentially devastating events.



Thyroid-Related Orbital Decompression Surgery: A Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors and Outcomes

Mon, 01 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: Despite the number of publications on orbital decompression surgery for thyroid eye disease, there are few comparative studies and most studies are underpowered. The goal of the study is to use multivariable analysis to identify independent patient and disease-related predictors of response to decompression surgery and of need for secondary decompressions. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent transorbital thyroid-related orbital decompression surgery at the Kellogg Eye Center of the University of Michigan between 1999 and 2014. Demographic, medical, and surgical covariates were collected. Decompression techniques included medial, lateral, and balanced decompressions, with or without orbital fat removal. Main outcomes included proptosis reduction and secondary decompressions, both analyzed at the orbital level. Univariate and multivariable analyses (with adjustment for interorbit correlation) were conducted to determine predictors of the outcomes of interest. Results: Mean proptosis reduction was 3.8 ± 2.4 mm (mean ± standard deviation, N = 420 orbits). The secondary decompression rate was 13.8% (82/594). On multivariable mixed linear regression, larger preoperative proptosis (p < 0.0001), balanced decompression (p = 0.0002), thyroid eye disease duration < 4 years (p = 0.0093), and history of orbital radiation (p = 0.0111) were all predictive of greater proptosis reduction. On multivariable survival modeling, factors associated with increased hazard for secondary decompression include younger age (p = 0.0434), larger preoperative proptosis (p = 0.0001), unilateral decompression (p = 0.0272), preoperative steroid treatment (p = 0.0200), and normal thyroid function (p = 0.0148). Factors associated with decreased hazard include adjunctive fat decompression (p = 0.0004), balanced decompression (vs. lateral, p = 0.0039), and African-American ethnicity (p = 0.0076). Conclusions: Despite a diverse study cohort, the authors have identified factors associated with clinically relevant outcomes of decompression surgery for thyroid eye disease, including proptosis reduction and incidence of secondary decompression. Randomized controlled trials of different treatment algorithms for TED are needed to devise optimized guidelines for individualizing surgical care.



Institutional Review Boards, Declaration of Helsinki, and HIPAA Regulations

Sun, 01 Sep 2013 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

No abstract available



Distribution of Elastic Fibers in the Lacrimal Sac and Nasolacrimal Duct of Japanese Cadavers

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To investigate the distribution of elastic fibers in lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct of Japanese cadavers. Methods: We examined 8 lacrimal sacs and nasolacrimal ducts of 7 Japanese cadavers (4 right sides, 4 left sides; 3 males, 4 females; average age of 89 years at death) that were preserved with 10% buffered formalin. The harvested specimens were transversely sectioned. All specimens were stained with Elastica van Gieson. Micrographs were taken, and then converted to white and black images, and the elastic fiber density of 4 locations (middle and upper levels of lacrimal sac, and middle and lower levels of nasolacrimal duct) was compared. Results: Elastic fibers showed greater distribution in the lamina propria, compared with the submucosal tissue, at all locations (p < 0.001). Elastic fiber density within the lamina propria at the middle lacrimal sac level (13.5% ± 4.3%) was similar to the density observed at the upper lacrimal sac level (13.2% ± 2.3%, p = 0.87) and the lower nasolacrimal duct level (17.8% ± 6.0%, p = 0.088), but was significantly greater than the density observed at the middle nasolacrimal duct level (9.5% ± 3.8%, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Elastic fibers in the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct are primarily distributed in the lamina propria, with a greater density at the upper and middle lacrimal sac levels, and at the lower nasolacrimal duct level, compared with the middle nasolacrimal duct level. This distribution of elastic fibers likely reflects the magnitude of mechanical stress within the lacrimal drainage system.



Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid Associated With Mucinous Adenocarcinoma

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma, a rare, low-grade neoplasm with predilection for the eyelids, has been posited as a precursor to invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and its concurrence with mucinous adenocarcinoma have received little attention in the ophthalmic literature. The combination of the 2 histologic patterns parallels endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and its transition to Type B invasive mucinous carcinoma. The authors describe a 59-year-old man who developed a tumor of the right upper eyelid showing endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma in the outer dermis and extensive mucinous carcinoma in the deeper tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity for endocrine markers chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, estrogen, and progesterone in each histologic component of the tumor. This research was conducted in conformity with the Helsinki Declaration and HIPPA regulations.



Aesthetic Abstracts and Citations

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

No abstract available



The Phenylephrine Test Revisited

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To characterize the phenylephrine test in ptotic patients to help clinicians perform the test more efficiently. Methods: Adults with involutional ptosis (n = 24, 30 eyes) were assessed with digital photographs for response to topical 2.5% phenylephrine drop instillation. Patient characteristics (age, gender, iris color, dermatochalasis, brow ptosis, and baseline marginal reflex distance-1 [MRD-1] height) were recorded. From the photographs, change in (MRD-1), presence of conjunctival blanching, pupillary dilation, and Hering effect were recorded at specified time intervals, 1 minute to 1 hour after drop placement. Correlations between patient characteristics and measured outcomes were evaluated using analysis of variance, Pearson coefficient, or chi-square tests. Results: The authors found that 73% of eyes had eyelid elevation with phenylephrine. Of these, 50% reached maximal eyelid elevation by 5 minutes, and 86% by 10 minutes after drop placement, but 14% did not reach maximal MRD-1 until 30 minutes. There is a negative correlation between the maximum MRD-1 and the baseline MRD-1 eyelid height (r = −0.5330, p < 0.01). There is no significant relationship between time to pupillary dilation with either time to max eyelid elevation or max eyelid elevation. No patient characteristic studied affected the likelihood of eyelid response to phenylephrine or presence of Hering effect. Conclusions: Although most ptotic eyelids demonstrate a response to 2.5% phenylephrine within 10 minutes, there is a subset of patients that respond much later. More ptotic eyelids had greater eyelid elevation with phenylephrine. Pupillary dilation and conjunctival blanching are neither predictive of nor temporally associated with eyelid height elevation. The authors did not identify any patient factors (e.g., dermatochalasis, brow ptosis) that can predict the likelihood of response to phenylephrine.



Human Bot Fly Infestation of the Eyelid

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) No abstract available



Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Medial Canthal Skin with Perineural Invasion of Orbit

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) No abstract available



Embryologic and Fetal Development of the Human Eyelid

Tue, 01 Nov 2016 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: To review the recent data about eyelid morphogenesis, and outline a timeline for eyelid development from the very early stages during embryonic life till final maturation of the eyelid late in fetal life. Methods: The authors extensively review major studies detailing human embryologic and fetal eyelid morphogenesis. These studies span almost a century and include some more recent cadaver studies. Numerous studies in the murine model have helped to better understand the molecular signals that govern eyelid embryogenesis. The authors summarize the current findings in molecular biology, and highlight the most significant studies in mice regarding the multiple and interacting signaling pathways involved in regulating normal eyelid morphogenesis. Results: Eyelid morphogenesis involves a succession of subtle yet strictly regulated morphogenetic episodes of tissue folding, proliferation, contraction, and even migration, which may occur simultaneously or in succession. Conclusions: Understanding the extraordinary process of building eyelid tissue in embryonic life, and deciphering its underlying signaling machinery has far reaching clinical implications beyond understanding the developmental abnormalities involving the eyelids, and may pave the way for achieving scar-reducing therapies in adult mammalian wounds, or control the spread of malignancies.



Observations on Prostaglandin Orbitopathy

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To present the various orbital soft-tissue changes that can result from the use of topical prostaglandin analogs. Methods: A case series of patients seen in a referral oculoplastic practice with presumed prostaglandin orbitopathy. Results: Thirty-five patients were found to have a variety of disorders, including deepening of the superior sulci (24/35), hypertrichosis (32/35), periocular erythema (24/35), and meibomian gland dysfunction (18/35). Marginal eyelid thinning with posterior migration of the lash line was commonly present (34/35). Increased eyelid margin tension with horizontal eyelid shortening (32/35) was often associated with lateral canthal deformity or displacement (15/35). Lower eyelid retraction (18/35) seemed to contribute to ptosis in some patients, secondary to apparent tethering at the lateral canthus. Functional conditions resulting from the above structural abnormalities included tractional ptosis (n = 4), cicatricial entropion (n = 3), cicatricial ectropion (n = 2), trichiasis (n = 2), eyelid subluxation (n = 1), and chalazia (n = 1). Conclusions: While topical prostaglandin analogs are well-tolerated by many patients with glaucoma, some individuals using these medications develop structural changes of the orbital soft tissue resulting in a variety of cosmetic and functional eyelid disorders. The eyelid margins can thin, causing posterior migration of the lashes. Increased horizontal tension of the eyelids may result in acquired blepharophimosis and upper or lower eyelid malposition. These orbital changes may be partially reversible in some patients. When possible, it is reasonable to withhold the prostaglandin and allow a period of observation before proceeding with surgical correction.



Orbicularis Retaining Ligament Release in Lower Blepharoplasty: Assessing Efficacy and Complications

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: Release of the orbicularis retaining ligament (ORL) has been advocated as a technique to address tear trough deformities. This study sought to compare the effectiveness and morbidity of lower blepharoplasty with and without ORL release. Methods: Retrospective chart review of 53 lower blepharoplasty patients. Twenty-six patients had ORL release and 27 patients did not. Three independent masked experienced cosmetic surgeons reviewed preoperative and postoperative photographs to assess degree of swelling, ecchymosis, change in steatoblepharon and tear trough deformity, and overall aesthetic result. Results: There were no significant differences in overall aesthetic result, change in steatoblepharon or tear trough deformity, and postoperative ecchymosis in patients who had ORL release compared with those who did not. Patients who had ORL release had postoperative swelling and chemosis of significantly longer duration and a higher likelihood of developing postoperative ectropion. Conclusions: Orbicularis retaining ligament release does not appear to result in additional aesthetic benefit in lower blepharoplasty patients and may increase morbidity in the form of ectropion and prolonged swelling and chemosis.



IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease. Part II: Clinical Aspects

Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: To review the current state of knowledge of IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD). Methods: A review of the literature and personal experience of the authors. Results: IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that may affect 1 or more organs. It is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates with large numbers of IgG4 positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, and eosinophil infiltration as well as peripheral eosinophilia, and in some cases, elevated serum levels of IgG4. These features are not always seen, and the diagnosis should be made by integrating clinical, imaging, and histopathological data, with reference to recently defined diagnostic criteria. IgG4-ROD forms a significant proportion of what has previously been labeled “idiopathic orbital inflammation” or reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Orbital disease may occur alone, at the same time as disease elsewhere, or metachronously with systemic disease. Although almost any ocular adnexal tissue may be affected, there are several commoner recognizable patterns of IgG4-ROD: (1) sclerosing dacryoadenitis; 2) enlargement of orbital nerves (most commonly the infraorbital nerve) associated with orbital myositis and lacrimal gland disease, often in combination with paranasal sinus disease, eosinophilia, and systemic involvement; and 3) sclerosing orbital inflammation. Patients with IgG4-ROD should be investigated and monitored for other organ involvement. Some patients with IgG4-related disease may develop lymphoma, usually marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type. Treatment of IgG4-ROD includes the use of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressants. Rituximab has been shown to be very effective. Longer term studies on the natural course and treatment of IgG4-ROD are needed. Conclusions: Patients presenting with orbital inflammatory lesions should have biopsies obtained whenever possible. The examining pathologist should routinely look for features of IgG4-ROD, and if found, the patient should be investigated for other organ involvement. Early treatment may prevent destructive changes in affected tissues.



Lateral Rectus Muscle Expands More Than Medial Rectus Following Maximal Deep Balanced Orbital Decompression

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: It has been reported that extraocular muscles can enlarge following orbital decompression in thyroid eye disease. In this article, the authors studied the changes in extraocular muscles size following maximal deep lateral and medial balanced decompression in a large sample of thyroid eye disease patients. Methods: Imaging data were reviewed preoperatively and postoperatively. Radiologic proptosis was assessed. Maximal axial muscle width of the medial and lateral recti was measured. Results: Data from 48 consecutive patients (75 orbits) were included. There was a significant increase in the width of both the lateral and medial recti after decompression (p < 0.01). The mean (standard deviation [SD]) change was less for the medial rectus (0.7 mm) than for the lateral (2.7 mm). This difference was significant (p < 0.01). For the lateral rectus, 80% of all decompression surgeries were associated with an increase in width of >1 mm. Mean (SD) proptosis reduction was 8.2 mm (3.4 mm). Conclusion: These results suggest that the extraocular muscles enlarge in the most deep lateral wall decompressions. For decompression as performed in this article, expansion tends to be more commonly found and of a greater magnitude in the lateral rectus compared with medial.



Support for the Egress Mechanism of Optic Nerve Sheath Fenestration

Sun, 01 May 2016 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) No abstract available



Subepidermal Calcinosis in the Ocular Adnexa: A Systematic Review

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To review the clinical and histopathologic findings associated with subepidermal calcinosis of the eyelids. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on subepidermal calcinosis of the eyelids was performed. Cases included were idiopathic in nature and met the histologic criteria for subepidermal calcinosis with calcium deposits in the dermis of the skin. Results: Twenty-one publications presenting 53 cases of subepidermal calcinosis involving the eyelids were published between 1970 and 2016. Males were affected more than females (67% vs. 33%), and 89% of patients were 21 years of age or younger. A total of 63% were non-Caucasian. Most cases involved a single lesion (82%), and lesions were most frequently located on the upper eyelid (63%). In 81% of cases, the lesion was less than 5 mm in diameter. When reported, the treatment of choice was complete surgical excision. Conclusions: Subepidermal calcinosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic lesions on the eyelid, particularly in young males with no history of systemic disease or laboratory abnormalities. These nodules usually present as painless, small, firm, mobile solitary cutaneous lesions with a predilection for the upper eyelid. Diagnosis is confirmed by histopathology, and treatment is with surgical excision.



Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Orbit Presenting With Acute Proptosis

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the orbit are exceedingly rare and typically present with gradual, progressive exophthalmos. In this report, an otherwise healthy 64-year-old woman undergoes resection of a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor after presenting with acute proptosis. An extensive clinical and radiographic evaluation reveals no other evidence of disease, establishing the diagnosis of a primary neuroendocrine tumor. The case presentation is followed by a brief review of the classification, presentation, and evaluation of orbital neuroendocrine tumors.



Outcomes of Orbital Blow-Out Fracture Repair Performed Beyond 6 Weeks After Injury

Fri, 01 Jul 2016 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: Blow-out fractures cause expansion of the bony orbital walls and prolapse of orbital contents in the sinuses. This can result in diplopia, enophthalmos, and hypoglobus. Early surgical repair has been previously recommended, however, recent reports show that delayed surgery can also be effective. In this study, the clinical and functional outcome of patients with delayed presentation and blow-out fracture repair beyond 6 weeks after injury are described. Methods: This is a noncomparative retrospective study. Medical records of adult patients with late orbital floor fracture repair performed by 4 surgeons from April 2008 to January 2014 at 3 tertiary referral centers were reviewed. All repairs were performed more than 6 weeks from the time of injury. Patients with prior orbital fracture repair surgery were excluded. Results: Twenty patients were included in the study. The duration from time of injury to surgery ranged from 7 weeks to 21 years with a mean of 19 months. Follow up ranged from 6 weeks to 56 months (mean 8 months). Mean age was 48 years (range, 25–80). Male to female ratio was 11:9. Surgery was performed on 10 right eyes and 10 left eyes. CT imaging demonstrated 10 patients had isolated floor fractures, while the remaining 10 patients had combined floor and medial wall fractures. Four patients also had associated facial fractures that did not require surgery. Indications for surgery included enophthalmos of 2 mm or more (18 of 20) and/or significant diplopia within 30° of primary gaze (6 of 20). Mean pre- and postoperative enophthalmos was 2.4 ± 0.9 mm and 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, respectively, corresponding to a mean reduction in enophthalmos of 2.1 ± 1.2 mm (range, 1–5 mm). Four of 7 patients with hypoglobus ranging from 1.5 mm to 8 mm preoperatively had complete resolution postoperatively, the remaining 3 patients showed reduced hypoglobus. Of the 12 patients that had diplopia preoperatively in any position of gaze, 6 patients had complete resolution of diplopia postoperatively, 4 patients had reduced but residual diplopia in extreme gaze, and 2 patients had persistent diplopia, in primary position and down gaze, respectively. Two patients had poor vision that precluded the manifestation of diplopia. None of the 6 patients without preoperative diplopia developed symptoms post operatively. Conclusion: Surgical repair of blow-out fractures of the orbit occurring more than 6 weeks or more from injury can achieve marked improvement in both the functional and cosmetic aspects. The likelihood of induced diplopia is low. Orbital floor fracture repair should be considered to successfully treat enophthalmos or diplopia in patients with delayed clinical presentation, even decades postinjury.



Nanoskin® Subcutaneous Implant in Guinea Pigs

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of Nanoskin®, a biomaterial derived from bacterial cellulose, as an alternate material for repairing the posterior lamellae of the eyelids. Methods: Forty guinea pigs received a fragment of Nanoskin® subcutaneously in the dorsal region. The animals received Nanoskin® (group 1) or Nanoskin® coated with a gelatin layer (group 2). The animals were observed daily for over 7, 30, 90, or 180 days with the subcutaneous implants in place. The animals were euthanized at a designated time and the Nanoskin® was removed for histologic, morphometric, and transmission electron microscopy evaluation. Results: The results were similar for both groups. The subcutaneously implanted Nanoskin® resulted in good tissue integration, induced mild inflammation, and was surrounded by a delicate pseudocapsule. Conclusion: The good tissue integration of Nanoskin® in study indicates that it may be a potential material for application as a substitute of posterior eyelid lamellar tissue. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the preliminary outcomes of this experimental study.



The Brow Fat Pad Suspension Suture: Safety Profile and Clinical Observations

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To evaluate the safety, subjectively assess outcome, and emphasize surgical pearls and critical clinical observations of upper blepharoplasty performed in conjunction with the brow fat pad suspension suture procedure, previously referred to as a “browpexy variant” or “brassiere suture procedure.” Methods: A retrospective 4-year analysis of patients who underwent the brow fat pad suspension suture with upper blepharoplasty was performed. Adjunctive procedures (brow lift and ptosis repair) were categorized. The surgical technique is detailed with emphasis placed on nuances to aid in optimal outcome. Results: Two hundred and sixteen patients (149 women and 47 men) underwent upper blepharoplasty with the brow fat pad suspension suture. The average patient age is 54 years and follow up is 11 months. One hundred patients had adjudicative brow lift or ptosis repair, and in 20 patients the blepharoplasty was a revision procedure. Subjective assessment of outcome showed excellent aesthetic results with improved brow projection, and enhanced lateral tarsal platform show and eyebrow/eyelid contour. Surgical complications were infrequent and patient satisfaction was high. Conclusions: This initial large series description of the brow fat pad suspension suture demonstrates that it is a safe adjunct to upper blepharoplasty, which the authors believe subjectively improves overall outcome. Evidence-based quantitative assessments of objective measures of surgical results are currently underway.



Programmed Death-1 Pathway in Orbital Invasion of Cutaneous Carcinomas

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: The programmed death-1 pathway negatively regulates the immune system. Previous reports have indicated worse tumor-related outcomes with increased expression of the ligand for this pathway. This study was undertaken to assess the role of the PD pathway in cutaneous malignancies that invade the orbit. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining for the programmed death-1 receptor and ligand was performed on exenteration specimens of invasive cutaneous orbital malignancies (n = 12) and nodular basal cell carcinoma (n = 10). The numbers of positively-staining cells/40× field were counted across 5 consecutive fields, and statistical analyses were performed to compare the differences between the 2 groups. Results: Programmed death-1 receptor positivity was seen in means of 30.9 cells/40× field and 62.4 cells/40× field for nodular basal cell carcinomas and invasive malignancies, respectively (p = 0.0046). A mean of 4.54 cells/40× field stained positively for the programmed death-1 ligand in nodular basal cell carcinoma, whereas a mean of 46.4 cells/40× field stained positively for programmed cell death ligand-1 in orbital invasive cutaneous carcinomas (p = 0.0015). Both of these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: Both the programmed death-1 receptor and its ligand are enriched in invasive cutaneous malignancies. This finding indicates that negative regulation of the immune system likely prohibits tumor surveillance, and facilitates increasing aggressiveness and invasion of cutaneous malignancies.



How the Mueller Muscle-Conjunctival Resection Ptosis Procedure Was Developed

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

No abstract available



Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes of Orbital Inflammatory Disease in Singapore: A 10-Year Clinicopathologic Review

Mon, 01 May 2017 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: 1) To assess the clinical profile and treatment outcomes of orbital inflammatory disease in the local population, and 2) classify patients using current histopathological criteria. Methods: Ten-year retrospective clinicopathologic review of patients diagnosed with orbital inflammatory disease who underwent tissue biopsy from January 2001 to December 2011 at a tertiary referral centre in Singapore. Data collection included patient demographics, clinical presentation, investigations, systemic disease, histopathology review, clinical classification, medical and surgical management, response to treatment and recurrence rates. Results: The study comprised 70 patients. Thirty-seven (52.9%) had nonspecific inflammation distributed as follows: lacrimal (n = 23), diffuse (n = 5), anterior (n = 5), myositic (n = 4). Thirty-three (47.1%) had specific inflammation of the following subtypes: idiopathic sclerosing inflammation (n = 9), granulomatous disorders (n = 8), transitional lesions (n = 5), vasculitis (n = 4), and others (n = 7). A total of 76.8% of patients received oral prednisolone, with a median duration of three months. Response to treatment was good in 71.9% of patients. Recurrence occurred in 22 (32.8%) patients at a mean interval of 20 months after completion of treatment, and was higher in myositic and vasculitic subtypes. There was no significant correlation between duration of treatment and recurrence. Conclusions: This study has re-emphasized the importance and utility of orbital biopsy and histopathologic typing for optimal management of orbital inflammatory disease. It has also improved the knowledge of the rate and response to treatment of its various subtypes.



Current Trends in Upper and Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty Among American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Members

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To assess current practice patterns for management of upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty by active American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members. Methods: An invitation to participate in a web-based anonymous survey was sent to the active American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery membership via email. The survey consists of 34 questions, both multiple choice and free response, regarding upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty surgery. Practice patterns for both aesthetic and functional blepharoplasty are assessed. Results: Thirty-four percent (161/472) of American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members polled responded to the survey. Members perform an average of 196 upper eyelid, 46 lower eyelid, and 53 four-eyelid blepharoplasty procedures per year, with 70% of cases being functional and 30% purely aesthetic. Most members prefer monitored care (71%) to local (21%) or general (8%) anesthesia. Eighty-nine percent of surgeons use topical antibiotics after surgery, erythromycin being the most common (51%). Fourteen percent of members use postoperative oral antibiotics, with cephalexin (81%) being most common. In upper eyelid blepharoplasty, orbicularis muscle is excised by 86% of respondents. Orbital fat is excised, when deemed appropriate, in 97% of cases, with nasal fat excised most commonly (88%). Less commonly, fat repositioning (36%) and adjunctive fat grafting (33%) are performed. In lower eyelid blepharoplasty, surgeons report using one or more of the following approaches: transconjunctival (96%), transcutaneous (82%), and both transconjunctival and transcutaneous (51%). Common adjunctive procedures include orbital fat excision (99%), fat repositioning (80%), and lateral canthal suspension (96%). Less common adjunctive procedures include laser skin resurfacing (36%) and chemical peels (29%). Conclusions: This report outlines contemporary practice patterns among active American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members in the management of upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty. It is important to quantify such data periodically to update the membership as to how this common surgical procedure is approached. This also allows eyelid surgeons to compare their practice patterns with a national group specializing in such surgery.



Long-Term Results for Entropion Repair by Tarsal Margin Rotation With Posterior Lamella Superadvancement

Wed, 01 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: To report the long-term stability of tarsal margin rotation and posterior lamellar superadvancement (TMR PLS) for the repair of upper eyelid cicatricial entropion. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed from January 2000 through December 2014 to identify all patients who had TMR PLS at the authors’ institution. Charts were reviewed for demographic information, recurrence of entropion or trichiasis, and surgical complications. Failure was defined as return of entropion. Patients with greater than 24 months of follow up were included. Results: A total of 30 TMR PLS procedures were performed during the review period. Nineteen cases from 14 patients were included in the final analysis. None of the 19 cases demonstrated recurrence of entropion over an average follow-up period of 78.3 months. Eight cases demonstrated trichiasis after TMR PLS, 5 of which required treatment. Conclusion: This case series suggests that TMR PLS for the treatment of upper eyelid cicatricial entropion has excellent long-term stability.



Re: “The Bleph and the Brain The Effect of Upper Eyelid Surgery on Chronic Headaches”

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

No abstract available



Can We Improve the Tolerance of an Ocular Prosthesis by Enhancing Its Surface Finish?

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: Patients who wear an ocular prosthesis frequently suffer with dry eye symptoms and socket discharge, often on a daily basis. The aim of the study was to determine whether a smoother, optical quality polish of the prosthesis’ surface could improve symptoms and wear tolerance. The study was designed as single-center, single-masked, prospective randomized controlled trial. Eighty-eight consecutive patients undergoing annual ocular prosthesis maintenance review were approached from the prosthesis clinic. Forty-one out of 49 eligible patients were recruited. Methods: Participants were randomized to either a standard or a higher “optical quality” polish of their prosthesis. At entry to the trial, at 1 month, and 12 months they completed a questionnaire covering cleaning, lubricant use, inflammation, discomfort, and discharge. Lower scores indicated better tolerance of the prosthesis. At each visit, the prosthesis was stained and photographed against a standard background to assess deposit build up. Primary outcome measures were 1) a subjective questionnaire score and 2) an objective assessment of surface deposit build-up on prosthetic eyes by standardized photographic grading. Results: Forty-one patients participated in the study. The median age of their prosthesis was 36 months (range 9 months–40 years). There was no statistically significant difference in questionnaire scores or deposit build up between the 2 groups at baseline. By 12-months, the higher optical quality polish showed a statistically significant reduction in symptoms and frequency of discharge (2.19 vs. 3.85; p = 0.05—lower scores better). Scoring of the prosthesis’ deposit build-up showed a significant difference at 1 month, but this was not sustained at 12 months. Conclusions: Creating an optical quality finish to an ocular prosthesis reduces deposit build up on artificial eyes. The authors found this modification improved patient tolerance at 12 months.



Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor Involving the Orbital Apex

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) No abstract available



Optimal Epinephrine Concentration and Time Delay to Minimize Perfusion in Eyelid Surgery: Measured by Laser-Based Methods and a Novel Form of Extended-Wavelength Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Objective: This study investigates the hypoperfusion effects of epinephrine in local anesthesia in eyelid surgery. A novel form of extended-wavelength diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated. Methods: Blood perfusion in porcine eyelid flaps was measured using laser Doppler velocimetry and laser speckle contrast imaging, whereas the tissue response was measured using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a broad spectrum (450–1550 nm). Epinephrine was either injected cumulatively, 0.1 (1:10,000,000), 1.0 (1:1,000,000), 10 (1:100 000), and 100 μg/ml (1:10 000), to determine the dose–response relation, or given as a single dose (10 μg/ml). Control experiments were performed with saline or lidocaine. Results: Increasing concentrations of epinephrine resulted in a gradual decrease in tissue perfusion, measured by laser Doppler velocimetry and laser speckle contrast imaging, approaching a minimum after the injection of 10 μg/ml. Similar tissue response was observed with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The time from the injection of epinephrine (10 μg/ml) to the stabilization of hypoperfusion was 75 seconds. After administration of 10 μg/ml epinephrine, about 20% of the blood perfusion remained, supporting the use of epinephrine in eyelid flaps with a narrow pedicle. Conclusions: 10 μg/ml epinephrine appears to be adequate for vasoconstriction before oculoplastic surgery. Incisions need only be delayed for about 1 minute. Extended-wavelength diffuse reflectance spectroscopy appears to be a promising technique for monitoring the tissue response following changes in blood perfusion in plastic surgery reconstructions. However, more rigorous validation of the technique is required before it can be implemented in clinical practice.



Spheno-Orbital Meningiomas: An Analysis Based on World Health Organization Classification and Ki-67 Proliferative Index

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To evaluate the clinical behavior of spheno-orbital meningiomas with regard to World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grade and Ki-67, a cellular marker of proliferation. Methods: A retrospective review over a 16-year period of the demographic, clinical, radiographic, and surgical data of all patients with spheno-orbital meningioma who underwent surgical resection. Tumor specimens were examined histologically using the current WHO 2016 classification and immunohistochemically using Ki-67/MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. Results: Thirty-eight patients met all inclusion criteria: 78.9% of tumors were WHO grade I with a mean Ki-67 of 3.76, and 93% of patients were clinically stable at last follow up; 10.5% of lesions were WHO grade II (atypical) with a mean Ki-67 of 14.93, and 10.5% of lesions were WHO grade III (anaplastic) with a mean Ki-67 of 58.3. All grade II and III meningiomas exhibited an aggressive clinical course. There were statistically significant correlations between disease clinical progression and WHO tumor grade (p < 0.001), between disease clinical progression and Ki-67 (p < 0.001), and between increasing Ki-67 index and higher WHO grade (p < 0.001). For WHO grade I lesions, a Ki-67 of ≥3.3 correlated with recurrence (p = 0.0256). Overall, disease-specific mortality occurred in 5 (13%) patients. Conclusions: Ki-67 index is a valuable marker to use in conjunction with WHO grade to predict meningioma behavior, particularly in histologically borderline lesions, and possibly to identify a subset of WHO grade I tumors at risk of recurrence. This combination of methods can aid in tailoring treatment and surveillance strategies.



Mirror, Mirror on the Roof!

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) No abstract available



Intralesional Tetracycline Injection for Treatment of Lower Eyelid Festoons: A Preliminary Report

Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To determine the safety and effectiveness of intralesional tetracycline 2% injection for the treatment of lower eyelid festoons. Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients undergoing tetracycline 2% injection of lower eyelid festoons at the Cole Eye Institute from August 2008 to August 2013. Charts were reviewed for patient demographic data, dose and number of tetracycline injections, follow-up interval, the presence of preinjection and postinjection photographs, and complications. Charts without preinjection and postinjection photographs were excluded from review. The preinjection and postinjection photographs were randomized, masked, and graded by 4 independent examiners. Photographs were graded on a scale of 0 (no festoon) to 4 (severe festoon). Student t test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Eleven patients met inclusion criteria. Each patient underwent bilateral injection. Average follow up was 121 days (range, 18–586 days). Patients received up to 0.75 ml (mean, 0.24 ml) of tetracycline 2% per side. Average preinjection grade was 2.1 (standard deviation, 0.89; range, 0–3), and average postinjection grade was 1.2 (standard deviation, 0.72; range, 0–2; p < 0.001). Three patients had follow up less than 60 days (mean, 34 days), with an average preinjection grade of 1.96 and postinjection grade of 1.23 (p < 0.001). Five patients had follow up between 60 and 100 days (mean, 82 days), with an average preinjection grade of 2.18 and postinjection grade of 1.38 (p < 0.001). Three patients had follow up longer than 100 days (mean, 275 days), with an average preinjection grade of 2.08 and postinjection grade of 0.78 (p < 0.001). Complications other than pain and bruising were not identified in any patient. Conclusions: Intralesional tetracycline 2% injection may offer a safe option to treat lower eyelid festoons. Complications such as cutaneous ischemia or necrosis were not identified in any patient. Further study may determine optimal treatment doses and intervals and detect infrequent but significant complications.



Upper Eyelid Response to Topical 0.5% Apraclonidine

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To describe the change in upper eyelid position in a self-reportedly normal population after the administration of topical 0.5% apraclonidine in each eye. Methods: One hundred self-reportedly normal subjects received a 1-time administration of topical 0.5% apraclonidine in each eye. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and then 30 and 45 minutes following apraclonidine instillation. Marginal reflex distance 1 was determined via image analysis of acquired digital photographs (image-derived measurements are given the prefix “i” in this study). The horizontal corneal diameter was used as a constant measurement scale in each photograph. Results: The mean increase in i-marginal reflex distance 1 post-administration of 0.5% apraclonidine was +0.70 ± 0.60 mm (range, −0.94 to +2.66 mm) after 30 minutes and +0.68 ± 0.59 mm (range, −0.69 to +2.54 mm) after 45 minutes. Of the 200 total eyelids in 100 subjects, 181 (90.5%) had an increase in i-marginal reflex distance 1 at 30 minutes. Of the 100 subjects, 85 (85%) had a bilateral increase in i-marginal reflex distance 1, 4 (4%) had a bilateral decrease, and 11 (11%) had a unilateral increase with a contralateral decrease. Conclusions: Given its predominant small-amplitude upper eyelid elevating effect, topical apraclonidine may be a useful off-label alternative treatment for mild upper eyelid ptosis and in eyelid asymmetry due to eyelid retraction through use in the contralateral eye.



Characterizing the Occluded Lacrimal Punctum Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

Mon, 01 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: Epiphora is sometimes associated with an absent or occluded lacrimal drainage punctum (or puncta). This study uses noninvasive “enhanced depth” anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) to give improved characterization and understanding of absent or fully occluded puncta and the underlying canaliculus. Methods: Anterior segment spectral domain OCT images were collected prospectively from 9 lower puncta of 6 patients with epiphora and absent or fully occluded puncta, not amenable to dilation in clinic, to see if a canaliculus was visible on OCT imaging below the occluded punctum. Results: An epithelial lined canalicular lumen was visible on OCT in 4 lower eyelid puncta from 2 patients and OCT identified 80% (4/5) of the canaliculi that were located on microscope-assisted punctal exploration. These lumens were seen within 580 μm depth from the eyelid margin surface. A half of the eyes in which a canaliculus was identified on OCT (the 2 eyes in a single patient) had resolution of epiphora following punctoplasty, and the other patient was found to have coexisting nasolacrimal duct stenosis and required later dacryocystorhinostomy. The positive predictive value for identifying a canaliculus on lower eyelid punctal exploration in acquired complete punctal occlusion (excluding the congenital case) was 1, with a negative predictive value of 1. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that canaliculi can be imaged with OCT where formal access is precluded by an occluded punctum. This noninvasive investigation might help predict the likelihood of successful retrieval of a canaliculus at surgical exploration.



Efficacy of Muller’s Muscle and Conjunctiva Resection With or Without Tarsectomy for the Treatment of Severe Involutional Blepharoptosis

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: To determine if Muller’s muscle and conjunctiva resection with or without tarsectomy is an efficacious procedure for the treatment of severe involutional blepharoptosis. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all consecutive patients with severe involutional blepharoptosis during a 12-year period treated by a single surgeon (AMP) with a Muller’s muscle and conjunctiva resection with or without tarsectomy. The inclusion criteria was good levator function (≥10 mm eyelid excursion), adequate response to phenylephrine (change in eyelid height ≥1.5 mm), and severe involutional blepharoptosis (margin-to-reflex-distance-1 ≤0 mm). Results: One hundred eyelids of 69 patients were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Mean preoperative margin-to-reflex-distance-1 was −0.65 mm and mean postoperative margin-to-reflex-distance-1 was 3.00 mm for all patients. For patients treated with Muller’s muscle and conjunctiva resection without tarsectomy, mean preoperative and postoperative margin-to-reflex-distance-1 was −0.51 mm and 2.98 mm with 97.5% of the patients obtaining a lift greater than 1.5 mm. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that Muller’s muscle and conjunctiva resection with or without tarsectomy does provide another alternative to the surgeon for the management of severe involutional blepharoptosis.



Desmoplastic Melanoma of the Periorbital Region

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare subtype of melanoma and an even smaller proportion of periocular melanomas. Here, the authors report 2 cases of DM in the periocular region. Staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) eighth edition classification, patient 1 presented with a stage IIIC (pT4apN1cM0) DM in the left lateral canthus with upper and lower eyelid and patient 2 presented with a stage IIIB (T4aN1bM0) DM in the left brow and supraorbital region with a parotid lymph node metastasis. In both patients, the lesions were amelanotic, with inflammatory appearance, and had been noted for several years before the correct diagnosis was made. In both patients, wide excision led to large surgical defects, and perineural invasion prompted adjuvant radiation therapy postoperatively. Patient 2 was treated with an immune checkpoint inhibitor for his parotid metastasis. Ophthalmologists should be aware of DM, its neurotrophic nature, and potential to metastasize with locally advanced lesions.



Orbital Schwannoma: Radiographic and Histopathologic Correlation in 15 Cases

Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT-06:00

(image) Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between radiographic and histopathologic features of orbital schwannoma. Methods: Retrospective review of 15 patients with orbital schwannoma managed at an ocular oncology service. Results: The mean patient age at the time of presentation was 42 years old (median 40, range 15–64 years). The orbital schwannoma was found incidentally (n = 2) or with symptoms of proptosis (n = 2), blurred vision (n = 3), pain (n = 3), eyelid swelling (n = 2), diplopia (n = 2), or headache (n = 1). The mean duration of symptoms was 15 months (median, 9; range 1–60 months). The tumor occupied the superior (n = 11) or inferior (n = 4) orbit. Antero-posterior tumor location involved the anterior (n = 2), middle (n = 3), posterior (n = 4), or entire (n = 6) orbit. MRI was performed in 12 patients (80%) and CT was the only form of imaging in 3 patients (20%). The T1-weighted MRI (n = 11) showed the mass as isointense (n = 10) or hyperintense (n = 1) to the extraocular muscles). On T2-weighted MRI (n = 10), the mass demonstrated hyperintensity (n = 9) or hypointensity (n = 1). Histopathologic assessment demonstrated Antoni A (n = 12) and Antoni B (n = 12) patterns. Antoni A pattern correlated with hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI and hypointensity on T2-weighted MRI. Antoni B pattern correlated with hypointensity on T1-weighted MRI and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI. As Antoni B approached >50% of the solid mass (n = 8), both T1- and T2-weighted MRI images were more likely to be heterogeneous (n = 7, 88% and n = 6, 75%, respectively). Conclusion: Orbital schwannomas are nearly always benign, well-encapsulated slowly progressive tumors. Due to the biphasic distribution of Antoni A and Antoni B pattern, the appearance on MRI has a variable degree of heterogeneity. Antoni A pattern correlated with hyperintensity and Antoni B pattern correlated with hypointensity on T1-weighted MRI.



Revisiting the Role of the Myofibroblast in Socket Surgery: An Immunohistochemical Study

Fri, 01 Jul 2016 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: To determine the impact of a single injection of various anti-inflammatory, antimitotic, and antiangiogenic agents on the cell count of myofibroblasts in an eviscerated socket. Methods: One eye from 15 skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits was eviscerated, and the rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Each group of 3 rabbits received a 0.1 ml subconjunctival injection of a different agent. Group I received bevacizumab 25 mg/ml, group II received triamcinolone 40 mg/ml, group III received 5-fluorouracil 50 mg/ml, group IV received mitomycin-C 0.4 mg/ml, while group V was the control group and received no injections. The animals were euthanized 19 days after evisceration and conjunctival samples were submitted for histopathological examination. Monoclonal α-smooth muscle actin antibody was applied, and the mean of 5 readings of the number of myofibroblasts was recorded in each slide. Results: The mean count of myofibroblasts was highest for the control group and all groups achieved a statistically significant reduction in myofibroblast count compared with the control group. Sorting the means showed that Group IV (mitomycin-C) achieved the lowest mean value (p = 0.000006) followed by triamcinolone (p = 0.00048), while group I (bevacizumab) achieved the least reduction in myofibroblast count (p = 0.00148). Conclusion: Until newer antimyofibroblast medications and antibodies are commercially available, a single injection of mitomycin-C or triamcinolone during surgery achieves the highest mean reduction of myofibroblast count.



Prospective Audit of Ptosis Surgery at the Singapore National Eye Centre: Two-Year Results

Fri, 01 Nov 2013 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) Purpose: To evaluate the demographics, presentation, and surgical outcomes of patients undergoing ptosis surgery in an Asian population in a prospective manner. Methods: A prospective ptosis audit was conducted over a 2-year period from January 2010 to December 2011 in a tertiary eye hospital in Singapore. All patients undergoing ptosis surgery by, or under the supervision of, an oculoplastic-trained consultant in the institution were included. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the study. Results: This study comprises 302 patients, of which 236 were acquired and 66 were congenital ptosis cases. Levator repair (77.2%) was the most commonly performed procedure, followed by levator resection (13.9%) and brow suspension (8.9%). Forty-seven (10.1%) eyes had readjustment within 2 weeks, the reasons for readjustment being eyelid height undercorrection (n = 35), eyelid height overcorrection (n = 9), and unsatisfactory eyelid contour (n = 4). Postoperatively, 93.8% of patients showed an increase in marginal reflex distance-1 (MRD1), 91.3% achieved symmetry or <1 mm of asymmetry in MRD1, 98.5% had good eyelid contour, and 74.3% had symmetric eyelid crease. On a scale of 1 to 10, 83.1% of patients gave a subjective grade of 7 or better. Conclusions: This study is the first prospective ptosis surgery audit in an Asian population and takes a leading step in assessing both subjective and objective surgical outcomes in a prospective manner. With the continuation of this audit in years to come, it will allow us to generate clinical outcomes in a robust manner and allow for more reliable benchmarking with major centers elsewhere.






Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Orbital Extension

Sat, 01 Jul 2017 00:00:00 GMT-05:00

(image) No abstract available