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Historical Places in Pakistan

Steeped in history and blended in culture, historical sites in Pakistan reflect the tradition and way of life of the era gone by. There are many historical sites in Pakistan that make an excellent tours.

Updated: 2018-03-06T01:35:00.955-08:00


Khaplu Fort


Khaplu Palace was built in 1840 by the Yabgo Raja Daulat Ali Khan of Khaplu[4][9] after the Dogra of Kashmirwho captured the region decided to move the seat of government from the old fort. The site of the palace was chosen by rolling a large stone down from a nearby cliff; it stopped at the Doqsai village, and the palace was built there.[6] The earlier fort was located near the location of the present-day palace. Khaplu Palace replaced the former fort as the royal residence after its completion.[4][9] According to Jane E. Duncan, the people of Khaplu used to live inside this fort and were not allowed to build their homes outside its premises. This practice was changed after Maharaja of Kashmir took control of the area, resulting in a cessation of conflict among neighbouring rulers.[10]The former fort was captured by Murad Khan of Maqpon Dynasty, the ruler of Baltistan, in the Conquest of Khaplu in the 1590s[11] by cutting off the water and other supplies to the fort. The troops of Murad besieged the fort for three months, resulting in the surrender of Rahim Khan, the 62nd Yabgo dynasty ruler of Khaplu. The fort again fell to invaders in the 1660s and 1674.[7]The Yabgo descendants continued to live there even after their kingdom was abolished in 1972. The last Raja of Khaplu who lived in the house was Raja Fatah Ali Khan, who died in 1983.The town of Khaplu is located in the eastern part of Baltistan, at an altitude of 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) above sea level and is the administrative capital of the Ghanche District. River Shyok a tributary of River Indus, passes through the town, along which is the ancient trade route to Ladakh.[4] Khaplu Palace is located north of the Khaplu town and south of the Shyok river[5][6] in front of the high mountains of Karakoram range.[7] A trek behind the palace in a ravine leads to the village of Pari in Skardu.[...]

deosai national park


The Deosai National Park was established in 1993 to protect the survival of the Himalayan brown bear and its habitat. Having long been a prize kill for poachers and hunters, the bear now has a hope afor survival in Deosai where its number has increased from only 19 in 1993 to 40 in 2005. During the last decade, a few but effective measures have been taken by the Government of Pakistan for the survival of brown bear in the region. In 1993, Himalayan Wildlife Project was founded with a substantial financial support from international environmental concerns. But the brown bear is still under threat.The Deosai Plains are also home to the Himalayan ibex, red fox, golden marmot locally called Phia, gray wolf, the Ladakh urial, the snow leopard, and over 124 resident and migratory birds. Birds in the park include the golden eagle, lammergeier, griffon vulture, laggar falcon, peregrine falcon, kestrel, sparrowhawk andsnowcock. The following species are found in Deosai Artemisia maritima, Polygonum affine, Thalictrum alpinum, Bromus oxyodon, Saxifraga flagellaris, Androsace mucronifolia, Aster flaccidus, Barbarea vulgaris, Artemisia maritima, Agropyron longearistatum, Nepeta connate, Carex cruenta, Ranaculyus laetus, Arenaria neelgerrensis, Astrogalus leucophylla, Polygonum amplexinade, Echinop nivetus, Seria chrysanthenoides, Artemisia maritima, Dracocephalum nutsus, Anapalas contorta, Chrysopogon echinulatus, and Dianthus crinitus. There were also observed some medicinal plants which are locally famous i.e. Thymu linearis (Reetumburuk), Saussures lappa (kuth), Ephedra intimedia (Say), Viola canescens (Skora-mindoq), Dracocephalum muristanicum (Shamdun) and Artemisia maritima (Bursay) etc. are used as traditional drug therapies.[...]



Attabad Lake,, also known as Hunza Lake, is a lake in the Hunza Valley of northern Pakistan created in January 2010 by a landslide dam. The lake was formed due to a massive landslide at Attabad village in Gilgit-Baltistan, 9 miles (14 km) upstream (east) of Karimabad that occurred on January 4, 2010. The landslide killed twenty people and blocked the flow of the Hunza River for five months. The lake flooding has displaced 6,000 people from upstream villages, stranded (from land transportation routes) a further 25,000, and inundated over 12 miles (19 km) of the Karakoram Highway. The lake reached 13 miles (21 km) long and over 100 metres in depth by the first week of June 2010 when it began flowing over the landslide dam, completely submerging lower Shishkat and partly flooding Gulmit. The subdivision of Gojal has the greatest number of flooded buildings, over 170 houses and 120 shops. The residents also had shortages of food and other items due to the blockage of the Karakoram Highway. By June 4 water outflow from the lake had increased to 3,700 cu ft/s (100 m3/s). Victims of the landslide and expansion of the lake staged a sit-in protesting the lack of government action and compensation payments to them. As a result of the damming of Hunza River, five villages north of the barrier were flooded. One village, Ayeenabad, was completely submerged. Major portions of another village, Shishkat, was also submerged. Around 40% of the village of Gulmit, which also serves as the headquarter of Gojal Valley, was also submerged. Significant portions of land in Hussain and Ghulkin villages of Gojal also got submerged as a result of the surging lake. The entire population of Gojal valley, up to 25000 individuals, were affected as a result of the lake, due to blockade of road access, difficulties in reaching to markets, loss of land, houses and agricultural products. Attabad has been visited by current and former Prime Ministers Yousuf Raza Gillani and Nawaz Sharif, and by the Chief Minister of Punjab Shahbaz Sharif, Sharif announced Rs100 million of aid for the victims from the Punjab government and Rs0.5 million for the relatives of those who died in the landslide Attabad Lake in May 2010 Attabad Lake in August 2011 Areas downstream from the lake remained on alert despite some officials believing that a major flood scenario was less likely as the river began flowing over the landslide dam during the first week of June 2010. Many people have been evacuated to 195 relief camps.Two hospitals downstream, the Kashrote Eye Vision Hospital and the Aga Khan Health Service, evacuated both their staff and equipment. Some officials had incorrectly predicted that as soon as the lake began flowing over the landslide dam, a 60 feet (18 m) wave would hit the areas immediately downstream. As of 14 June 2010, the water level continued to rise. DawnNews reported that " 242 houses, 135 shops, four hotels, two schools, four factories and several hundred acres of agricultural land" had been flooded, and that villagers were receiving food and school fee subsidies. They reported that 25 kilometres of the Karakoram Highway and six bridges were destroyed.A special documentary on this issue Hunza Kahani by Waqar Ahmed Malik was on aired at Express news. The spillway of the lake was blasted first on March 27, 2012 and then on May 15, 2012. It caused a reducation in its water level by at least 33 ft as performed by Frontier Works Organization. Ethnic aspect of the lake disaster The lake in September 2011. The Gojal Valley, which is worst affected as a result of this lake, is home to three rare ethnic groups, namely Wakhi (70%), Burushaski (28%) and Domaki (2%). The entire population of Domaki speakers, a very tiny minority and historically marginalized community, was displaced from their village (Shishkat). The Wakhi and Burushaski speaking minority ethnic groups have also been affected severely as a result of the disaster.[...]

The National Monument in Islamabad,


Pakistan is a national monument representing the four provinces and three territories of Pakistan.  Designed by Arif Masood the blooming flower shape of the monument represents Pakistan's progress as a rapidly developing country.  The four main petals of the monument represent the four provinces (Balochistan, North West Frontier Province, Punjab, and Sindh), while the three smaller petals represent the three territories (Northern Areas, Azad Kashmir and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas).

Jinnah International Airport


Jinnah International Airport Jinnah International Airport previously Quaid-e-Azam International Airport (IATA: KHI, ICAO: OPKC) is Pakistan's largest international and domestic airport. It is located in Karachi, Sindh, and is also commonly known as the Jinnah Terminal. The airport is named after Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, who was also known as Quaid-e-Azam ("Great Leader").The airport provides primary hub for the flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), Shaheen Air International, and Airblue as well as many other private airlines. The airport is equipped with aircraft engineering and overhauling facilities including the Ispahani Hangar for wide-body aircraft.HistoryDuring the 1940s there was a large black coloured hangar (also locally known as Kala Chapra) at the site of Karachi Airport, constructed for the British R101 Airship. Only three hangars were ever built in the world to dock and hangar the R101 airships. However, the R101 airship never arrived in Karachi (then part of the British Raj) as it crashed early in its journey in France. This hangar was so huge that aircraft often used it as a visual marker while attempting VFR landings at Karachi. Over the years, the hangar became known as the landmark of Karachi, until it was torn down by order of then-President Ayub Khan in the 1960s.During World War II, Karachi Airport was a major transhipment base for United States Army Air Force units and equipment being used by Tenth Air Force in eastern India and Burma, as well as for Fourteenth Air Force in China. Several operational bomber and fighter units flew into Karachi for short organizational periods prior to their deployment. Air Technical Service Command had extensive facilities where aircraft were received, assembled and tested prior to being flown to their combat units at forward airfields. It also functioned as a major maintenance and supply depot for both air forces. In addition, Air Transport Command flew numerous cargo and passenger flights to the Middle East and to points within India and China.The airport facilities were further expanded in the 1980s to Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 respectively. The present day infrastructure of Jinnah International Complex is a result of an expansion programme carried out in 1994. Today, the new Jinnah Terminal handles both domestic and international flights, whereas Terminal 2 is now dedicated to Hajj operations. Terminal 1 (which was actually the entirety of the airport in the British days) as well as Terminal 3 are now used for commercial offices, airline offices, and a string of bank counters and ATMs for public use.Karachi was once a much busier airport. Between the 1960s and 1980s it was an online station of several major airlines of the world including British Airways, Interflug, TAROM, Alitalia, JAT Yugoslavia Airlines, Aeroflot, Philippine Airlines, Nigeria Airways, Ethiopian Airlines, EgyptAir, East African Airways, Kenya Airways, Air France, Qantas, Pan Am, Royal Jordanian, Libyan Arab Airlines, Japan Airlines, Syrian Arab Airlines, Middle East Airlines, Swissair, and SAS. However, due to the emergence of Dubai's airport on the world map, increased usage of longer haul aircraft, and the poor political climate of Karachi during the 1990s, several airlines discontinued their service to the airport.In the past couple of years Karachi has seen a reversal in fortunes. The dwindling numbers of international airlines have stabilised and whilst there hasn't been a marked increase in the number of airlines flying in to Karachi, some have either increased the number of flights or resumed their old operations, either online or via codeshare service.Economic factors may be partly responsible for the upswing in activity at the airport. As industrial growth in Karachi and the rest of Pakistan expands, some European and Asian carriers are mooting resumption of services to Jinnah International.StructureIn fiscal year 2[...]



Peshāwar Persian is the capital of the North-West Frontier Province and the administrative centre for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Peshawar" literally means "The Place at the Frontier" in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto or Pukhto. The area of the city has been ruled by numerous empires including the Afghan, Persian, Shahi, Greek, Maurya, Scythian, Arab, Turk, Mongol, Mughal, Sikh and the British.In ancient times, a major settlement called Purushpur was established by Kanishka, the king of the Central Asian Kushans, in the general area of modern Peshawar. Purushpur emerged as a major center of Buddhist learning until the 10th century, and was the capital of the ancient Indo-Greek kingdom of Gandhara. During that time, the Kanishka stupa on the outskirts of Peshawar, was the tallest building in the world - rising to almost 700 feet.The current city was established during the Mughal period in the 16th century by Akbar during which it received the name Peshawar. During much of its history, the city was one of the main trading centres on the ancient Silk Road and was a major crossroads for various cultures between South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East.Located on the edge of the Khyber Pass near the Afghan border, Peshawar is the commercial, economic, political and cultural capital of the Pashtuns in Pakistan. It is as a geographical and cultural frontline between extremist, moderate, and liberal Islam.History of Peshawar Being among the most ancient cities of the region between Central, South, and West Asia, Peshawar has for centuries been a centre of trade between Afghanistan, South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. As an ancient center of learning, the 2nd century B.C.E. Bakhshali Manuscript used in the Bakhshali approximation was found nearby. Peshawar is also the setting of the famous story Peshawar Nights, which was an exchange between a Shia scholar and a Sunni audience over the course of eleven nights, which presumably resulted in their acceptance of Shi'ism.Peshawar was a major center of Buddhist learning until the 10th century. As an indication of its importance, Peshawar was also the site of Kanishka's Great Stupa which housed relics from Gautama Buddha, and was widely considered to be the tallest building in the world at the time of its construction. Ancient Chinese manuscripts tell of Buddhist pilgrims such as Faxian, Sung Yun, and Xuanzang reporting that the 7th century stupa, which was rediscovered in 1908, had a height of 591–689 feet.Indo-Greek PeshawarThe area that Peshawar occupies was then seized by the Greco-Bactrian king, Eucratides (170 - 159 BCE), and was controlled by a series of Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek kings who ruled an empire that spanned from ancient Pakistan to North India. Later, the city came under the rule of several Parthian and Indo-Parthian kings, another group of Iranic invaders from Central Asia, the most famous of whom, Gondophares, ruled the city and its environs starting in circa 46 CE, and was briefly followed by two or three of his descendants before they were displaced by the first of the "Great Kushans", Kujula Kadphises, around the middle of the 1st century CE.Kanishka's RulePeshawar formed the eastern capital of the empire of Gandhara under the Kushan king Kanishka, who reigned from at least 127 CE. Peshawar became a great centre of Buddhist learning. Kanishka built what may have been the tallest building in the world at the time, a giant stupa, to house the Buddha's relics, just outside the Ganj Gate of the old city of Peshawar.Excavations of Kanishka's Monastery in central PeshawarThe Kanishka stupa was said to be an imposing structure as one travelled down from the mountains of Afghanistan onto the Gandharan plains. The earliest account of the famous building is by the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk, Faxian, who visited it in 400 and described it as being [...]

Vedic period


Retracing shared heritage of India, Pakistan Written by Aditi Tandon, Tribune News Service.Vedic periodThe time period in the history of India known as the Vedic period or Vedic age is the period of the composition of the sacred texts called Vedas and other such texts in Vedic Sanskrit. The associated culture sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization was centered on the Punjab (modern Pakistan) and the Gangetic plain (modern India). Scholarship places the Vedic period into the 2nd and 1st millennia BCE, continuing up to the 6th century BCE when it began to be transformed into classical forms of Hinduism. Early medieval Hindu authors suggest dates as early as the 4th millennium BCE.Its early phase saw the formation of various kingdoms of ancient India. In its late phase (from ca. 700 BCE), it saw the rise of the Mahajanapadas, and was succeeded by the golden age of Hinduism and classical Sanskrit literature, the Maurya Empire (from ca. 320 BCE) and the Middle kingdoms of India.Gandhāra is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau (see Taxila) and on the northern side of the Kabul River. Its main cities were Peshawar and Taxila.The Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from the 6th century BC to the 11th century AD. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century AD under Buddhist Kushan Kings. After it was conquered by Mahmood of Ghazni in 1021 AD, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal time the area was part of Kabul province.PunjabThe Punjabis were predominantly Hindu with large minorities of Buddhists like the rest of South Asia, when Umayyad Muslim Arab army led by Muhammad bin Qasim attacked Sindh and lower Punjab, in 713. This started the process of Islamic conversion among the population of Punjab, as well as India . This process continued for the next 10 centuries but there were significant non-Muslim populations including Hindus and later Sikhs.The heritage of Seraikistan - Bhutta WahanIs situated at a distance of 16 kilometers to the North of Rahim Yar Khan, on the lost river Hakra. The village is said to be named after the name of Raja Bhutta who captured this locality after Raja Dahir. This village is also claimed to be the birth place of Sassi, the renowned heroine of Sassi-Pannun and of Ab-ul-Fazal and Fiazi, sons of Mullah Mubarik.Islamgarh FortIslamgarh ,the old Bhinwar Fort, was built by Rawal Bhim Singh in Sambat in 1665, as the following inscription on its gate in Babri characters proves "Samabat 1665 Asuj Wadi 2, Maharaj Rawal Sri Bhim Singh Ji Maharaj". The fort is situated in the Cholistan area of Tehsil Khanpur. It is 46 kilometers south east of Baghla Fort. The fort is in a dilapidated state.Mau Bubarik FortAccording to Tarikh-e-Murad, a fort was built by Raj Hans Karar in Mau Mubarik as a residence for his mother, hence the name Mau refers to mother in local language. The fort was taken by Shah Arghun in 1525 A.D. It was one of the six fortresses of Raj Sahasi 11. It had 20 bastions and Towers. The ramparts were about 549 meters in circumference and the walls very strongly and thickly built. Here the shrine of a saint Sheikh Hakim is of great importance.Pattan MinaraThe ruins of Pattan Minara are located at a distance of about 8 kilometers in east south of Rahim Yar Khan city. It has variously been described as the remains of Ashoka period, who built it in 250 B.C. or a Buddhist monastery. Nearby the minar, remains of a fort, a mosque and some tunnels are also visible. About 110 years ago Colonel Minchin a political agent of Ex-Bahawalpur state started the excavation of these tunnels but discontinued digging for some[...]

Faisal Mosque


Faisal MosqueThe Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is the largest mosque in Pakistan and South Asia and the fourth largest mosque in the world. It was the largest mosque in the world from 1986 to 1993 when overtaken in size by the completion of the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco. Subsequent expansions of the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) of Mecca and the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Prophet's Mosque) in Medina, Saudi Arabia during the 1990s relegated Faisal Mosque to fourth place in terms of size.Faisal Mosque is the National Mosque of Pakistan. It has a covered area of 5,000 m2 (54,000 sq ft) and has a capacity to accommodate approximately 300,000 worshippers (100,000 in its main prayer hall, courtyard and porticoes and another 200,000 in its adjoining grounds). Although its covered main prayer hall is smaller than that of the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca (the world's third largest mosque), Faisal Mosque has the third largest capacity of accommodating worshippers in its adjoining grounds after the Masjid al-Haram (Grand Mosque) of Mecca, the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Prophet's Mosque) in Medina. Each of the Mosque's four minarets are 80 m (260 ft) high (the tallest minarets in South Asia) and measure 10 x 10 m in circumference.The Faisal Mosque is named after the late King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia, who supported and financed the project.HistoryThe impetus for the mosque began in 1966 when the late King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia supported the initiative of the Pakistani Government to build a national mosque in Islamabad during an official visit to Pakistan. In 1969, an international competition was held in which architects from 17 countries submitted 43 proposals. After four days of deliberation, Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay's design was chosen. Construction of the mosque began in 1976 by National Construction of Pakistan, led by Azim Borujerdi, and was funded by the government of Saudi Arabia, at a cost of over 130 million Saudi riyals (approximately 120 million USD today). King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz was instrumental in the funding, and both the mosque and the road leading to it were named after him after his assassination in 1975. The mosque was completed in 1986, and used to house the International Islamic University. Many conservative Muslims criticised the design at first for its non-conventional design and lack of the traditional dome structure, but virtually all criticism was eventually silenced by the mosque's scale, form, and setting against the Margalla Hills upon completion.LocationIt is located in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan. It is situated at the north end of Faisal Avenue, putting it at the northernmost end of the city and in front of a magnificent backdrop provided by the Margalla Hills, the westernmost foothills of the Himalayas. It is a focal point of Islamabad, and a famous and recognized icon of the city.DesignThe Faisal Mosque is the most famous work of renowned Turkish architect, Vedat Dalokay. The mosque's relatively unusual design fuses contemporary lines with the more traditional look of an Arab Bedouin's tent, with its large triangular prayer hall and four minarets. However, unlike traditional masjid design, it lacks a dome, and like a tent, the weight of the main prayer hall in the center is supported by the four minarets. The minarets borrow their design from Turkish tradition and are thin pencil like. The interior of this prayer hall holds a very large chandelier and its walls are decorated with mosaics and calligraphy by the famous Pakistani artist Sadequain. The mosaic pattern adorns the west wall, and has the kalimah writtern in early Kufic script, repeated in mirror image pattern.The mosque's architecture is a departure from the long history of South Asian Islamic architecture. However, in some ways it makes a bridge between Arab, Turkish and [...]

Kot Diji Fort


Kot Diji FortThe Kot Diji Fort, formally known as Fort Ahmadabad, dominates the town of Kot Diji in Khairpur, Pakistan about 25 miles east of the Indus River at the edge of the Nara-Rajisthan Desert. The fort was built between 1785 to 1795 by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, founder of the Kingdom of Upper Sindh in 1783. In addition to the fort, a 5 kilometer, 12 feet wide mud wall was built around the city. This defensive wall had bastions throughout its length and a huge iron gate served as the city's only entrance.Fort Kot DijiMir Sohrab Khan Talpur, King of Upper Sindh.1783-1830 Map of Sindh. Confederacy of Talpur KingdomsThe fort was considered invincible and served as the residence of the Ameers of Khairpur in times of peace. It is, therefore, the ancestral home of royal house. During war time the zenana (female members of the royal family), would be shifted to Shahgarh Fort, formerly within the realm but since 1843, after the conquest of the rest of Sindh, it is in the Jaisalmer desert, now in India. When the Zenana moved into the comfort of palaces, it stood mainly as a decorated reminder of more violent times. Throughout its whole history, however, Fort Kot Diji was never attacked.ConstructionKot Diji is a very practical fort constructed on a limestone hill with kiln-baked bricks. Bricks were used because the locally available limestone rock was very brittle and would have shattered easily on impact with a cannonball. The hill is about 110 feet high, above which the walls of the fort rise another 30 feet. It has three strategically placed towers about 50 feet tall.The fort is over half a kilometer long. Its walls are segmented by about 50 bastions, and its 1.8 km outer perimeter wall identically follows the double crescent-shaped contours of the hill it stands on. This allows the fort to surround the attacking enemy on three sides on the west front. On the east, where the entrance lies, the fort is divided by three elephant-proof gates into three overlapping levels, so that the first two levels can be attacked by the next level above them in the event of the lower level being overrun by the enemy. The first gate is not a prominent portal but rather an indirect entry so that the gate cannot be rammed on a charge. The walls and bastions have arrow slits in them, allowing defenders to attack their enemy from two levels: from the battlement on top and from within the wall.The fort was built at a time when cannons had become common and its design and position reveals that. It includes a multitude of stations for cannons and, because it is positioned high on a narrow ridge, enemy cannons would have had to fire at a great distance, permitting little accuracy. Cannonballs could either hit the hill or perimeter or would simply fly over the fort and fall on the enemies' own forces on the other side.LocationKot Diji was located at the edge of the desert; this provided an advantage over enemies marching from the east, because an exhausted army could be met before it could take supplies and water from the irrigated lands. In fact, the Mirwah canal was built in 1790 specifically to irrigate the lands west of the fort and bring water to the military base.Role under the British EmpireThe Kingdom of Upper Sindh later was recognized by the British as the princely state of Khayrpur, after the East India Company had reduced its area to less than a third of its original size of over 50,000 km². The Fort was allocated the role of central military base for the Kingdom, especially to resist Afghan invasion. It was the strongest of the 20 or so Talpur forts and was named after the Persian architect Ahmed, who designed it. According to folklore it took 30 years to build; in reality, a much shorter, tactically feasible period may have been possible by mobilizing peasants and soldiers on a massive scale.Re[...]

The Khunjerab Pass



The Khunjerab Pass is the highest paved border crossing in the world and the highest point on the Karakoram Highway. The roadway across the pass was completed in 1982, and has superseded the unpaved Mintaka Pass and Kilik Pass as the primary passage across the Karakorum Range.

On the Pakistani side, the pass is 125 km (78 mi) from Sust, 270 km (170 mi) from Gilgit and 870 km (540 mi) from Islamabad. There is a security outpost in Dih, and a customs and immigration post near Sust. On the Chinese side, the pass is 130 km (81 mi) from Tashkurgan, 420 km (260 mi) from Kashgar and some 1,890 km (1,170 mi) from Urumqi. The Chinese port of entry is located 1 km (0.62 mi) away from the mountain in Tashkurgan County.

The long, flat pass is often snow-covered during the winter season and is closed from November 30 to May 1. There is excellent grazing on the Chinese side of the pass, and domesticated yaks and dzu (a cross between yaks and cows) may be seen from the road. On the Pakistani side, the highway travels about 50 km (31 mi) across the extensive Khunjerab National Park before reaching the security outpost of Dih.

Since June 1, 2006, there has been a daily bus service across the boundary from Gilgit, to Kashghar, China[1]
Strategic Position

Khunjerab Pass is in a strategic position between the Pakistani autonomous region of Gilgit-Baltistan (formerly the known as the Northern Areas, and once part of Kashmir and the Xinjiang autonomous region of China.

In 2007, consultants [2] were engaged to investigate the construction of a railway through this pass to connect China with transport in Pakistani-administered northern areas of Kashmir. A feasibility study started in November 2009 for a line connecting Havelian 750km away in Pakistan and Kashgar 350km in China. [3]

Khunjerab Pass can be seen in episode 13/30 of the NHK television series The Silk Road. The series was first shown in Japan in the early 1980s.
See also


Khunjerab National Park

Karakoram Highway

Northern Areas

Wagah border


mind those in power in both countries that they will only do as well as their relationship with the other country. The India and Pakistan of today have been shaped more by their mutual relationship than any other single factor. This relation-ship has been sour at best, and hateful at worst. But it is this relationship that will determine to what extent any force in Indian or Pakistani politics – be it the military, the religious right, or maybe even the people – is successful

Habib bank Karachi


HBL established operations in Pakistan in 1947 and moved its head office to Karachi. Our first international branch was established in Colombo, Sri Lanka in 1951 and Habib Bank Plaza was built in 1972 to commemorate the bank’s 25th Anniversary.

With a domestic market share of over 40%, HBL was nationalized in 1974 and it continued to dominate the commercial banking sector with a major market share in inward foreign remittances (55%) and loans to small industries, traders and farmers. International operations were expanded to include the USA, Singapore, Oman, Belgium, Seychelles and Maldives and the Netherlands.

On December 29, 2003 Pakistan's Privatization Commission announced that the Government of Pakistan had formally granted the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development (AKFED) rights to 51% of the shareholding in HBL, against an investment of PKR 22.409 billion (USD 389 million). On February 26, 2004, management control was handed over to AKFED. The Board of Directors was reconstituted to have four AKFED nominees, including the Chairman and the President/CEO and three Government of Pakistan nominees.

The Denso Hall


The Denso Hall

Denso HallThe Denso Hall was built in memory of Max Denso, a prominent resident of the city who had also chaired the Karachi Chamber of Commerce from 1870-71. A sum of Rs. 9,000 was collected by his friends for the construction of the building, whereas the Karachi Municipality allocated an important site on the fast-developing Bunder Road, as well as additional funds in order to provide the facility of a public hall, reading room and library in an area close to the "Old Town".

The Denso Hall was designed by James Strachan and was built in 1886 in the Market Quarter of the city, and was made out of local Gizri Sandstone. The architecture of the building was a relatively simple design which was Venetian Gothic in character. It employs The Denso HallTudor arches in the ground floor of the building whereas ogive arches are used for the first floor openings. Projecting balconies with carved balusters punctuate the long facade. The building includes an entrance hall, library, reading room and some small rooms on the ground floor. The upper floor is a large hall (60 ft x 30 ft) accommodating about 500 persons and was used for different types of social gatherings. The illuminated clock on the eastern front of Denso Hall was a gift from Rao Sahib Ramdas Morarji.

Karakoram Highway


he souls that paved the way for the modern tarmac road named the Karakoram Highway still seem to flicker amongst the sharp moving shadows of the unstable rocks and the almost countless but crumbly lucent glaciers that constantly threaten it's existence. There has always been a long pass into, and out of China over what is sometimes called the 'roof of the world' but in ancient times it was a very perilous pathway.Extant writings, etched in a fourth century A.D. Chinese travelers diary, record ' The trail was very precipitous, and vertigo accompanied us as we edged along it...' The path was certainly narrow, and often clung to the sheer faces of the many deep resonant gorges that still confine their turgid, animated rivers. Even today, one can still see vestiges of an old crumbling trail high up above the present road. Although it is not the same trail that this particular merchant scrabbled breathlessly along, if one scrambles up to it and edges along it for a few meters, one can experience the same feelings of dizziness and danger that the diarist wrote about.The new wide metal led road also winds along high palisade like cliffs in some places, and sometimes short sections of the tarmac rumble down into the river below or become buried under tones of rock and mud. However a modern traveler on this modern road will not experience the same fear or vertigo as the ancients.The present highway is also popularly called the 'Silk Route' by many romantics because it approximates the trail of what was once one of the many silk, jade and spice carrying caravan trails that congregated somewhere near Xian, in China, and terminated in the vicinity of modern Syria on the Mediterranean sea coast. Like long lines of exploring ants, determined traders, merchants, and adventurers wore a path through narrow gorges, high grass sheathed valleys, across waterless deserts, around 6,000 meter - and higher mountains, and over raging rivers in pursuit of barter.Karakoram Highway The passage of time hasn't altered any of these geophysical conditions, nor were the reasons for building this new road (apart from its obvious military significance) any different from the ancients reasons for undertaking such a hazardous journey. The new road was built to facilitate trade between China and Pakistan.Tourist literature published by the Pakistan Tourist Authorities states that the road took twenty years to build. The pamphlets also mention the amount of earth moved, rocks blasted out of the way and more poignantly, the number of men and women, both Pakistani and Chinese who died in this great joint engineering feat.Although the brochures write that it 'took twenty years to build', the road is in fact never finished! Because of the uniqueness of it's geophysical surroundings, constant natural activity frequently destroys sections of the highway. A small army of workers are on hand to reroute the road and join the new sections to the ends of the undamaged highway. The road in other words, is constantly being moved!Put very simply, the road meanders through an area where highly active tectonic plate pressure is causing mountains to grow faster than the elements can wear them down! Swift flowing rivers and the measurable movements of glaciers crush, undercut and wash away the sides of these same mountains contributing to the constant rock falls and landslides that changes the face of the land almost daily! This uniquely accelerated geological activity can be felt, seen, and heard if one sits quietly on any high vantage point for a few hours. The road is in fact an observable reflection of man's incessant, but unequal struggle against nature's transcendental power.[...]

Altit Fort


Altit Fort

Altit FortAltit Fort is situated in the village of Altit, about 3 km from Karimabad. It has been built on a sheer rock-cliff that falls 300 meters (1000 feet) into the Hunza River, and is about 100 years older than the nearby Baltit Fort.

Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)


Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)

Shalimar Gardens (Lahore)The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu:), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 A.D. (1051 A.H.) and was completed the following year. The project management was carried out under the superintendence of Khalilullah Khan, a noble of Shah Jahan's court, in cooperation with Ali Mardan Khan and Mulla Alaul Maulk Tuni.

General info

The Shalamar Gardens are laid out in the form of an oblong parallelogram, surrounded by a high brick wall, which is famous for its intricate fretwork. The gardens measure 658 meters north to south and 258 meters east to west. In 1981, Shalimar Gardens was included as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Lahore Fort, under the UNESCO Convention concerning the protection of the world's cultural and natural heritage sites in 1972.

The three level terraces of the Gardens
The Gardens have been laid out from south to north in three descending terraces, which are elevated by 4-5 metres (13-15 feet) above one another. The three terraces have names in Urdu as follows:

The upper terrace named Farah Baksh meaning Bestower of Pleasure.
The middle terrace named Faiz Baksh meaning Bestower of Goodness.
The lower terrace named Hayat Baksh meaning Bestower of life.

Shah Nahar : Irrigation of the Gardens
To irrigate the Gardens, a canal named Shah Nahar meaning Royal canal, later also known as Hansti canal, meaning Laughing canal was brought from Rajpot (present day Madhpur in India), a distance of over 161 kilometers. The canal intersected the Gardens and discharged into a large marble basin in the middle terrace.

410 fountains

From this basin, and from the canal, rise 410 fountains, which discharge into wide marble pools. The surrounding area is rendered cooler by the flowing of the fountains, which is a particular relief for visitors during Lahore's blistering summers, with temperature sometimes exceeding 120 degrees fahrenheit. It is a credit to the ingenuity of the Mughal engineers that even today scientists are unable to fathom how the fountains were operated originally. The distribution of the fountains is as follows:

The upper level terrace has 105 fountains.
The middle level terrace has 152 fountains.
The lower level terrace has 153 fountains.
All combined, the Gardens therefore have 410 fountains.



Bagh-e-Jinnah (or Jinnah's Garden) is a historical park in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. It was formerly known as Lawrence Gardens. Today, the large green space contains a botanical garden, a mosque, and Jinnah library situated in a Victorian building.

There are also entertainment and sports facilities within the park that comprise of an open-air theatre, a restaurant, tennis courts and the Gymkhana Cricket Ground. It is located on Lawrence Road next to Lahore Zoo, directly across from the Governor's House on The Mall.

Originally built as botanical garden modelled on Kew Gardens, it was named after John Lawrence, Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869.[1] The place used to hold his statue, which was later moved to Foyle and Londonderry College in Northern Ireland.

Jinnah Garden Lahore that is situated on 141 Acrs at this time, earlier it was in 176 acres, but the land was given to Lahore zoo, botanical garden govt. college university Lahore and to roads alongside the garden. now it is almost the plant area except roads building is 121 Acres. it is most beautiful and well managed botanical garden in Pakistan. it has almost 150 varieties of trees, 140 types of shrubs, 50 types of creepers, 30 palms, almost 100 succulent and about same indoor along with almost all varieties of annual flowers. garden has a good name in Chrysanthemum shows, it was the first institute that started growing chrysanthemum and maximum no of varieties for it. it has 3 nurseries, 4 hilloaks in it. it has two libraries, quaid-e-azam library and Daruslam in it.

The park hosts a famous cricket ground since 1885, built for the entertainment of government officers and civil servants.[2] The ground maintained its Test Status from 1955 till 1959 when the venue moved to Gaddafi Stadium.

The park receives a nostalgic mention of the 1970s and 1980s life in Bano Qudsia's remarkable urdu novel Raja Gidh. The Park has a Tomb of Shia' Sufi Known as Baba Turat Muraad Shah, with a heavy number of visitors.

Hiran Minar


Hiran Minar is a brick minaret built over the grave of the favourite antelope of emperor Nooruddin Mahmood Jahangir in Sheikhupura. In 1605 he laid the foundation stone of Jahangirpura, also called Sheikhupura (as Jahangir was affectionately called Sheikhu by his father, Jalaludin Muhammad Akbar). Sheikhupura became Jahangir's favourite hunting ground. Here, he built a beautiful fort, complete with a castle. He frequently visited this place and enjoyed hunting in the lush green forest. Legend has it that once Jahangir went there for his usual recluse and captured a beautiful wild antelope. This antelope was tamed in the brief span of one month. Jahangir named it Mansraj (King of the Antelopes). Whenever Jahangir came to Jahangirpura, Mansraj was the focus of special royal attention. But once, when Jahangir went on a hunt, he accidently shot Mansraj, and killed him. Jahangir, profoundly grieved, decided to build a tomb for his favorite pet and in 1607 forbade hunting in the area.He ordered a minaret to be built over the grave of Mansraj under the guidance of Sikander Mueen. The statue adorning the grave was shaped like an antelope, a fact recorded in the Tuzk-e-Jahangiri (Memoirs of Jahangir), although no stone is discernable over it now. Excavations in 1959 unearthed the head of the statue.
Jahangir came to inspect the tomb and was not satisfied. He ordered a baradari and a pond to be constructed. These were completed under the supervision of Iradat Khan in 1620. Shah Jahan, the next Mughal ruler, made some important alterations to the building in 1638. A common legend narrates that once a Sikh ruler came to see the Minar, which at that time was double its present height. When he climbed to the top, he accidently saw his daughter taking a bath. Infuriated, he ordered the minar to be cut to half its size. This was done.The Hiran Minar complex is spread over sixteen acres. The fish pond, measuring 750 feet by 890 feet, is fed by a canal. The minaret is 110 feet high and is approached by 110 steps. The pond is surrounded by a typical Mughal-style garden with rows of trees and pathways. However, the entire site is in a dilapidated condition. The baradari and minar are crumbling, the garden is untended, and the fish pond is a dirty green, although there are still fish in it.

Gawadar Port


Gwadar PortI wanted to write on this topic for many months. Finally I’ve got around to write on it. Most of our readers know Pakistan inaugurated its third deep sea port in Gwadar in March 2005. It became operational in March 2008 when first the ship carrying 52000 tonnes of wheat from Canada berthed here. In my opinion a great news of development for Pakistan, especially as a project whose foundation stone was laid just three years ago on March 22, 2002 and its first phase got finished on time in March 2005. Phase I includes building of three multipurpose berths. Gwadar port operations are run by the Port of Singapore Authority (PSA) under a 40-year agreement.So far so good. But what are the strategic and political implications of this project. A quick search on internet will reveal a plethora of conspiracy theories. Some even call it a useless port for Pakistan. Others call it a part of new Great Game being played across the Balochistan province of Pakistan. So what is it?In my opinion this is a brilliantly planned project and a great strategic move by Pakistan. With Pakistan Motorway Project connecting Gwadar to Peshawar via Punjab, a World Class Coastal Highway (N10) connecting Gwadar to Karachi, it may very well become the trade hub for this century. But while Pakistan has played its best move, other regional and global powers are also not sitting silent and they are making their own moves making Gwadar port a project with multi-dimensonal consequences.Dimension One: Pakistan’s Strategic InterestsGwadar Port(1) Gwadar is located only 180 nautical miles from the Strait of Hormuz through which 40% of World’s Oil passes. Gwadar could thus emerge as the key shipping hub in the area providing mass trade to central asian republics as well as across Pakistan and China. A road from Gwadar to Saindak is completed. Saindak is already connected to the RCD Highway (N35) and through Quetta-Chaman it provides the shortest route for trade with Central Asian Republics.(2) Pakistan also needed a deep sea port away from Karachi so that in times of hostilities Pakistan Navy doesn’t get blockaded. With all the navy ships concentrated at Karachi port, a blockade of Pakistan had been quite easy in the past. With Jinnah Naval Base at Ormara and Gwadar port, PN should be able to spread out its assets. For reference, Gwadar port is 450 km further away from Indian Border than Karachi Port.(3) Gwadar port will directly and indirectly bring lots of wealth, trade and infrastructure advancement to the area which has been traditionally left behind in developement. Compare it to how Karachi port transformed a once sleepy fishing village to a megapolis.This is all good news for Pakistan.The photo above is courtesy of Zahid Shahid at flickr.comDimension Two: Chinese Interests in Reaching Blue Waters(1) It is also widely claimed that there is a Chinese interest in reaching the blue waters of Arabian Sea. This is cited as a strategic move by Chinese as they funded US $198 million (out of total phase I cost of US $248 million) and also provided 450 Engineers on site to finish the project on time. It is said that China is trying to develop its Western regions at par with its Eastern regions to reduce the economic gap within China and to stop the internal migration of people from West to East. It is famously called their ‘Go West’ policy. To market products produced in Western China, ports of Shanghai or other eastern ports are almost 3000 km away from the western production centers where as Gwadar provides access to a port at just 1[...]

Punjab - The Land Of Five Rivers


Punjab the heart of Pakistan. The land of five waters, and five seasons, known for its fertility, colorful panorama and exquisitely serene and clean atmosphere. Its waters have seen life being quenched since centuries. Its trees have embraced the wind that was fragrant by the immortal stories like Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal and Mirza Sahiban. The soil which, nurtured sufi poets like Baba Farid, Ali Hajveri, Bulhe Shah, Shah Hussain, Mian Muhammad Bakhsh and Waris Shah. Punjab has seen the starving of Budha and the wandering of Guru Nanak in search of truth. Its terrain has kept the secrets of Indus Valley civilizations along the River Indus at Harappa and many more un-discovered places. Waters still sing here, winds never forget to whisper and rains know how do dance in Mon Soon.So it is not a bad idea either to visit this place which is gifted with mountains, rivers, planes, fruits, trees, artifacts, historical monuments and the largest salt range of the world.Here we are to present the worth seeing places that can make you feel the glory and grandeur of almost all parts of Punjab.A promise for the FutureAn important city of ancient Gandhara and a place that enlightened the Budha and one of the greatest archeological sites the world possesses today. The ruins of Taxila, scattered about 30 KM away from Rawalpindi, represent the historical value of over 1000 years ago (around 500 BC to 500 AD). This place has the honor to have the world’s best known university at that ancient time offering subjects like law, medicine, arts etc. At Taxila, various sites are scattered over a large area encompassing; Bhir Mound, Dharmarajika, Budhist Stupa and Monastery. Moreover, one could find Sirsukh City remains, the Shrine of Double-headed eagle, Jandial temple, Sirsukh City and Jaulian Budhist Monastery etc. The Taxila museum is known for its Gandhara artifacts, a rare blend of Greek and Budhist Art. This museum also has a collection of old coins, utensils, jewelry, toys and pottery manifesting the highlights of the life style of ancient Taxila.2. Harappa Rediscovering HistoryThe Indus Valley civilization covers almost the exact area where Pakistan exists today. Mehrgarh in Balochistan, Mohenjo Daro in Sindh and Harappa in Punjab possess the clandestine of a common society. Excavations have proved that around 3000 BC. Harappa was inhabited by nomadic tribes. The remains show a prosperous and comfortable life in that old epoch with emphasis on sanitation and everyday facilities. This land has trade relations with Egypt, the other developed civilization of the ancient world. The archeological museum at the site entrance may take you to the wonder world of past through found artifacts.The Salt Range An Evaporated SeaIt is undoubtedly a geologist’s dream with variety of minerals and rocks. Having great natural beauty, this area varies in height between 750 and 1500 meters and climate is noticeably cooler in summer. The largest Salt Mine of the world, Khewra also exists here. On the other hand, Kallar Kahar with its salt lake and orchard, centuries old Hindu Temples at Ketas and pilgrimage sites are breathtaking. This is the sea that extended over the Indus Plain and the Potowar Plateau that evaporated 600 million years ago. Rocks and fossils at this site provide the missing links of the story of earth. Around Khewra at Nandna, famous Muslim traveler and historian al-Beruni measured the circumference of the earth during 11th century.3. Jhelum Land of the BraveJhelum is located at the base of the Poto[...]

Jinnah House


Jinnah House was the residence of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan; in Mumbai, India. It was built in 1936 at a then exorbitant price of 2 lakh (200,000) rupees when Jinnah returned to Mumbai from England to take charge of the Muslim League. Jinnah House was the residence of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan; in Mumbai, India. It was built in 1936 at a then exorbitant price of 2 lakh (200,000) rupees when Jinnah returned to Mumbai from England to take charge of the Muslim League. Now worth around $60 million the house is the subject of a dispute between India, the government of Pakistan and Jinnah's daughter Dina Wadia. The bungalow is located on Mount Pleasant Road (now Bhausaheb Hirey Marg) in the upmarket Malabar Hill area of South Mumbai. Its opposite neighbour is the residence of the Chief Minister of Maharashtra.Designed by architect Claude Batley in the European-style architecture, the sea facing palatial bungalow was constructed using exquisite Italian marble and walnut woodwork. Specially imported Italian stone masons were employed for its construction with Jinnah personally supervising the construction "brick by brick". The property encompasses an area of 10,000 square metres (2.5 acres). The mansion, with its pointed arches and impressive columns, is currently in a dilapidated state, and much of the walnut panelling has rotted.The historic building was also the venue for the watershed talks on the Partition of India in September 1944 between Jinnah and MK Gandhi. Ironically on 15 August 1946, exactly a year before India gained independence, another round of talks was held here between Jinnah and Jawaharlal Nehru which altered the course of Indian history.Mansion inhabitantsJinnah was extremely attached to his house. After India was partitioned, Mumbai remained a part of India and Jinnah left his abode as he became the Governor General of Pakistan. He requested to Nehru, the then Indian Prime Minister to allot his house to any foreign consulate, preferably European, as he wished it to be given to a European family who would appreciate the architecture. Nehru acceded to Jinnah's request and offered him a monthly rent of three thousand rupees. Unfortunately Jinnah died in September 1948 before the deal could be finalised.As a personal favour to Jinnah, Nehru did not declare the property as Enemy Property, as was done to most properties held by emigrants to Pakistan. In 1955, in a Cabinet speech he suggested it be gifted to the Government of Pakistan, but could not gain the sanction of the Cabinet. Though India's Foreign minister and the Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan suggested that the mansion be handed over to Pakistan in 1956, the suggestion never materialised.The premises were leased to the British High Commission as the residence of the Deputy High Commissioner from 1948 to 1983. The first floor of the building also held the offices of senior Commission officials. It remained vacant until 2003, when a part of it was given to the Indian Council for Cultural Relations to be used for cultural activities. In March 2005, India's Minister of State for External Affairs, E Ahemad reiterated that the house would remain as a cultural centre.[...]

Mohenjo Daro


Mohenjo-daro was a city of the Indus Valley Civilization, 20 km from Larkana and some 80 km southwest of modern Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and better preserved than Harappa. However, due to rain the upper part of tomb is now destroyed despite steps to further save this world historical place. Ancient city on the bank of the Indus River, in present-day southern Pakistan The site of Mohenjo-Daro (also Moenjo-daro, latitude 27 degrees, 25 minutes north, longitude 67 degrees 35 minutes east), in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan, is the largest and most extensively excavated Indus city in Pakistan. This city would have dominated the major trade routes and agricultural potential of the southern Indus plain, from around 2600-1900 BCE.Mohenjo-Daro is located in District Larkana at a distance of about 28 km from Larakana and 107 km from sukkur.Mohenjo-Daro was a city located in the south of Modern Pakistan in the Sind Province, on the right bank of the Indus River. It was built between four and five thousand years ago, and lasted until 3,700 BP. It was part of the Harrapan Civilization, and the city had at least 35,000 residents. Mohenjo-Daro means “mound of the dead”. The city was approximately one square mile in size. In 1922-1927 large scale excavations at Mohenjo-daro were carried out by R. D. Banarjee and continued by M. S. Vats and K. N. Dikshit under the direction of Sir John Marshall. E. J. H. MacKay carried out further excavations from 1927 to1931. Sir Mortimer Wheeler made small excavations in1950. As a result of this extensive work almost one-third of the area of the old city was exposed, revealing for the first time the remains of one of the most ancient civilizations in the Indus Valley. Typical of most large and planned cities, Mohenjo-daro had planned city streets and buildings. The settlement was thought to house roughly 5,000 people, and had houses, a granary, baths, assembly halls and towers. Mohenjo-Daro - largest city of the Indus Civilization The site of Mohenjo-Daro (also Moenjo-daro, latitude 27 degrees, 25 minutes north, longitude 67 degrees 35 minutes east), in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan, is the largest and most extensively excavated Indus city in Pakistan. Mohenjo-Daro - It was built around 2600 BC, and was abandoned around 1700 BC, probably due to a change of course of the river which supported the civilization. Mohenjo-Daro - The high western mound is generally referred to as the "citadel" mound, but it is subdivided into several sectors.The city was divided into two parts, the Citadel included an elaborate tank or bath created with fine quality brickwork and drains; this was surrounded by a verandah. Also located here was a giant granary, a large residential structure, and at least two aisled assembly halls. To the east of the citadel was the lower city, laid out in a grid pattern. The streets were straight, and were drained to keep the area sanitary. The people of the city used very little stone in their construction. They used two types of bricks- mud bricks, and wood bricks, which were created by burning wood. They used timber to create the flat roofs of their buildings; there are brick stairways le[...]

k2 Pakistan


K2 K2 is the second-highest mountain on Earth. It is located in the Karakoram segment of the Himalayan range, on the border between the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. However, those who climb K2 must acquire entry via Pakistan as the Chinese side is inaccessible. Chinese authorities officially refer to K2 as Qogir; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Qiáogēlǐ Fēng. This name is derived from Chogori, a synthetic name made up by Western explorers early in the 20th century from two Balti words, chhogo ('big') and ri ('mountain').Other names include Mount Godwin-Austen,Lamba Pahar ("Tall Mountain", Dapsang, Kechu or Ketu (both derived from Climbing history The mountain was first surveyed by a European survey team in 1856. Thomas Montgomerie was the member of the team who designated it "K2" for being the second peak of the Karakoram range. The other peaks were originally named K1, K3, K4 and K5, but were eventually renamed Masherbrum, Broad Peak, Gasherbrum II and Gasherbrum I respectively. In 1892, Martin Conway led a British expedition that could only reach up to 'Concordia' point of the Baltoro Glacier. The first serious attempt to climb K2 was undertaken in 1902 by Oscar Eckenstein and Aleister Crowley from the north side, but after five serious and costly attempts, the team could only reach up to 6525 meters. The failures are attributed to a combination of questionable physical training, personality conflicts, and poor weather conditions — of 68 days spent on K2 (at the time, the record for longest time spent at such an altitude) only eight provided clear weather. Subsequent attempts to climb the mountain in 1909, 1934, 1938, 1939 and 1953 also ended in failure. The 1909 expedition, led by Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, reached an elevation of 6,666 m on what is now known as the Abruzzi Spur (or Abruzzi Ridge). This is considered part of the standard route today; see the route section below. An Italian expedition finally succeeded in ascending to the summit of K2 on July 31, 1954. The expedition was led by Ardito Desio, although the two climbers who actually reached the top were Lino Lacedelli and Achille Compagnoni. The team included a Pakistani member, Colonel Muhammad Ata-ullah. He had been a part of an earlier 1953 American expedition which failed to make the summit because of a storm which killed a key climber, Art Gilkey. On the expedition also was the famous Italian climber Walter Bonatti. He proved vital to the expeditions success in that he carried vital oxygen to 26,600ft for Lacedelli and Compagnoni. His dramatic bivouac, at that altitude with the equipment, wrote another chapter in the saga of Himalayan climbing. On August 9, 1977, 23 years after the Italian expedition, Ichiro Yoshizawa led the second successful ascent to the top; with Ashraf Aman as the first native Pakistani climber. The Japanese expedition ascended through the Abruzzi Spur route traced by the Italians, and used more than 1,500 porters to achieve the goal.[...]

Hunza Pakistan


Hunza Valley is a mountainous valley in Gilgit in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of the Northern Areas of Pakistan. The Hunza valley is situated at an elevation of 2,438 metres (7,999 feet). The territory of Hunza is about 7,900 km² {3,050 mi²). Karimabad (formerly called Baltit) is the main town which is also a very popular tourist destination because of the spectacular scenery of the surrounding mountains like , Ultar Sar, Rakaposhi, Bojahagur Duanasir II, Ghenta Peak, Hunza Peak, Darmyani Peak, and Bublimating (Ladyfinger Peak), all 6,000 m (19,685 ft) or higher. History Hunza was formerly a princely state bordering China to the North-East and Pamir to its North-West, which continued to survive until 1974, when it was finally dissolved by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. The state bordered the Gilgit Agency to the south, the former princely state of Nagar to the east. The state capital was the town of Baltit (also known as Karimabad), and its old settlement is Ganish Village. Hunza was an independent principality for more than 900 years. The British gained control of Hunza and the neighbouring valley of Nagar between 1889 and 1892 followed by a military engagement of severe intensity. The then Thom (Prince) Mir Safdar Ali Khan of Hunza fled to Kashghar in China and sought what can be called political asylum. The most authentic and dependable notables and the best of oral tradition narrator of Hunza, through generations, have narrated the tale as follows, That when King Alexandar Zulqarnian (The two homed King Alexander) conquered all the Cities and countries and brought them under his sway, he finally consolidated and established his court of justice. Hence the hoards of the armies of the king were returning through this place (Hunza Valley) from the direction of China, While this army was passing through this valley, four persons of this force Shaano, Safar, Mamoo, and Mr. Fulolo fell ill. On this the commander of this Army appointed and detailed the fifth person Mughal Titam as the caretaker- of this small ill group. He was tasked to look after the remaining four persons till they all had recuperated from their diseases. He was ordered that once, by the grace of God, when they all were healthy and normal they were to make efforts to reclaim and settle this valley and make It irrigable and inhabitable. After that every horseman and the foot soldier of the rest of the passing army was ordered to contribute a fistful of barley and flour as a contribution from each man respectively, as the rations for the sustenance of these five men, It is said that the amount of barley and flour collected in this manner had lasted for next three years as rations for this group of five men. After this stop over the rest of the army left this place and marched towards Gilgit. Once this army arrived at Gilgit a commander. named as Shah Raees, was detailed and appointed to reclaim and inhabit Gilgit valley. He managed to reclaim Gilgit valley and commenced to rule this valley, It is since this period /era that the family /clan of rulers of Gilgit have been named With the title of “Raeesay”. However the second version of this tale has been narrated thus; that when Sultan Sikander (King Alexander the great) conquered most of the countries of this side of the world and brought th[...]