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Heatmaps: A directorial and brand engagement tool for VR films.

Thu, 20 Jul 2017 16:31:27 +0000

GazeMaps as a Directorial tool in VR:

Youtube has been pioneering video based VR more than any other platform. As of now, it’s safe to say they are way ahead of other VR video players such as Vimeo, Jwplayer and Brightcove. Both, in audience-facing and back-end features.

While some of the other players don’t yet have proper support for stereoscopic video VR, Youtube has forged ahead with spatial audio formats and seamless switching of their player depending on platform used.

In the back-end, it now gets even more exciting with Youtube offering for free, their heatmap analytics tool. As an indie filmmaker (who also has to do marketing) this is an invaluable tool to showcase real “eyeballs” engagement to potential sponsors.

Let’s start with using this tool from a storytelling and Director’s point of view. Before releasing a VR film to the general public, this is the workflow I’d follow from now on:

Upload small test sections or a rough cut of the film to Youtube and set the film url to private or unlisted in youtube’s settings. Invite my “screener audience” by giving them the URL  – I marvel at how patterns have changed from physically going to a cinema screening. Wait for Youtube to have enough views to build the Heatmap for the film. Go back to the edit table and reposition cuts, “dwell time” and Point-of-interest. 

…then release the film, satisfied in the knowledge that the VR film will be twice as effective with all the big data crunching and distilling that’s performed. To be fair – there might already be offline gaze mapping tools out there for quicker data gathering.

We’ll dissect my 2015 graphic novel themed VR film, Dirrogate, to gain some insights:

To follow along with the time-stamps, use the pause button on the youtube player, above. Times stamps mentioned below are from the Youtube player timeline (not the embedded timestamps inside the video)

00:00 – 00:30

I’ve realized in VR, people need enough time to acclimatize to a new scene – The establishing shot – in a VR film could safely be twice as long as in a made-for-Imax movie, as the gaze map shows.

 00:30 – 1:15 

It’s only after about 30 seconds into the video that people start looking around the environment. As we approach the 1 minute mark, it’s safe to assume that because the visuals are not changing… people might start to get bored and are looking around more frequently. The heatmap shows this. However – based on the heat index (red-yellow) it looks like a good number of people really don’t move their heads around much at all.

For this establishing scene, in hindsight now, I’d go back and shorten it as I feel it’s starting to drag. An interesting point to consider is – what if the buildings had people moving in the windows – what if it were a live action drone shot, through a city? I’d wager:

There’d be red-yellow hotspots all over the place – Which we could conclude might be from multiple viewings of the same scene! – Imagine what this does for brand placement (Bladerunner billboards anyone?) No risk of [...]

Youtube introduces #180VR – The Good, The Bad and The Ugly of it.

Fri, 23 Jun 2017 12:12:30 +0000

#180VR – The Good:

According to a recent article on TechCrunch, Youtube is popularizing 180 degree VR. 

First: The good news – proper Stereographers will be back in business and in-demand.

Now, 180 VR is not exactly something new. It’s the same as wide-angle Stereoscopic 3D movies. The quick and dirty of 180 VR – take two RED Cameras, put fish-eye lenses on them and you’re shooting wideangle stereoscopic 3d, which is being called 180VR because it’s viewed in a headset.

I’ve chosen to mention RED cameras for a few reasons, both the good and the bad. The good in choosing RED Cameras, is they are widely known for pristine image quality. The other good is a bit more technical, but it has to deal with the ability of these cameras to “Genlock” i.e, to “paint” an image across both sensors in concert; in complete sync. This is important as we’ll see in a bit.

The bad of using standard RED Cams just placed side by side to mimic the way the eyes see the world, is that the physical profile of RED cameras leads to a large interaxial (de’ja vu happening here) or to put it another way – the separation between the lens centers of the cameras is larger than our eye’s interocular distance. This leads to Hyperstereo or KingKong vision. 

If you’ve seen a VR ‘broadcast’ done by NextVR, of a basketball or football match, you’ll see how you feel like King Kong watching little human figurines running around a table top field.

There certainly are smaller profile, – closer to human interocular distance – cameras, that can genlock for wide angle stereoscopic production (BMCCs, even machine vision cameras, for instance) Sometimes it’s advantageous to have smaller than adult sized interocular spaced stereoscopic cameras.

Getting back to Youtube announcing the launch of 180 VR… it’s good but also also leads to…

#180VR – The Bad:

The video above is taken from the TechCrunch article itself, and is part of Youtube’s #180VR playlist. Here’s what Youtube has to say about it via an article on Wired:

“Watch a VR180 video on your phone, and it flattens and stretches a bit, no big deal. They look just like any other YouTube video we have on the site. So there’s no need to pan around or move your phone around. Pop it into a Daydream headset, and the footage fills your field of view.”

If only it were that easy. At least we agree, Youtube intends it to be viewed in a proper HMD and therein lies the rub:

What needs to get fixed, is this democratizing of #VR180 without Quality Checks being put in place.

Why might this lead to the delay of mass adoption of VR?… read on.

A few reasons:

To produce ‘true’ video based VR – it was hard, because it needed stereoscopic 360 coverage of a scene which was not easy and the forte of only a few production studios world-wide. Felix and Paul, Canada, Visualize in the UK, and the excellent work of independent producer Antonio Victor Garcia come to mind.  Now, any production house can put [...]

Understanding stereoscopic VR video and VR cameras.

Tue, 20 Jun 2017 18:58:32 +0000

Anaglyph images – A Stereographer’s swiss knife:

This will be a slightly more technical article than what’s usually found on the RealVision site, and will seek to equally learn and answer questions as we move from traditional “Framed” Stereoscopic movies to what can be considered the minimum to qualify as video based “VR”: recording the ‘depth channel’

But first, a disclaimer, acknowledgement and notice: Footage, screengrabs and imagery is from the InstaPRO 360 site, freely available for download :here:  The footage used, was noted by the manufacturers as being from a pre-release camera, but now that the camera is commercially available, at least some of the observations in this article are still noticeable.

Anaglyphs are used by Stereographers to quickly scan a scene for stereo “sweetness,” but reading an anaglyph is part art, part science. I won’t delve into more closely guarded tricks/tips in anaglyph reading in this article, but a lot that will be talked about should benefit the reader and the VR motivated filmmaker.

A word of advice:

Don’t be caught coming off as being a novice, by uttering these immortal words:

“Anaglyph isn’t the way to display 3D” . Yes, Stereographers know that.

Reading Equilateral projection Anaglyphs:

The correct way to read anaglyphs after reading them without red-cyan glasses, is to then wear a pair (for the image above, red filter over left eye) Next, place the mouse cursor over the image to find zero parallax – or screen plane. (click the image for larger.)


You’ll quickly, or eventually (it gets better with experience) find zero parallax to be on the woman wearing a white coat crossing the street with a cellphone and handbag. An experienced stereographer will know this without wearing glasses, because it looks like the area where the red-cyan “fringes” converge. Actually, to be precise, she does have a little bit of negative parallax (out of screen depth) and zero parallax is just slightly behind her as the mouse cursor will confirm. Now – and this is what prompted this technical article – in a Facebook Group discussion, there was an opinion stating the parallax in this scene is wrong or “off”. See the circles on the first image of this article. The argument being, how can areas adjacent to each other have varying depth?

Here’s how you find out if this is true:

Wearing anaglyph glasses, slowly… run the mouse cursor from the woman in white at near zero parallax…upward. Notice how the “depth” or hollowness in the scene increases? That’s correct parallax (obviously) but what happens as we keep going higher toward the sky? (the zenith). Notice how the cursor now seems to be reading almost back to zero parallax? Try it again – this time starting at the left at the man in black, on the street inline with the curved pillar building (with the LCD screen below) and it will be more obvious – why is the parallax reading “wrong” as you go higher? 

The answer is – or can be – because of the nature of the optics of fish eye lenses and the diminishing or graduated stereo that [...]

Cinematic VR for PR needs to UP it’s game – Alien Covenant review.

Sat, 03 Jun 2017 09:36:27 +0000

Better, Faster, Cheaper…

..pick two, the saying goes. The fact is, you can actually pick all three for VR. Yet, you’d think VR hasn’t matured enough going by what’s being done in recent VR for PR pieces in Hollywood.

Almost all of the tentpole movies are doing purely CG VR ‘experiences’ to promote a film, in association with high profile sponsors donating GPUs, domain expertise, software and hard currency.

The VFX teams are of a high pedigree, doing work on today’s blockbuster films. But, at least two recent VR for PR pieces, have fallen short of expectations – according to me.

Before I get into critique, a standard disclaimer: This is a technical critique, and if you can’t stomach it (see what I did there) stop reading.

Let’s get on with it.

“I believe directors of the caliber of Ridley Scott are the ones who will deliver on Cinematic VR. It’s up to the ProdCos. and consultants involved to keep up and deliver on the vision.”

I’d recently reviewed Ghost in the Shell’s VR for PR offering, on Linkedin.

The review was of the GITS app version released on the GearVR, not the subsequent video rendered version that was uploaded to the Oculus video player. Some things noticed were:

The framerate was below acceptable standards for the GearVR and yet somehow it passed Oculus QC and was allowed on. There was the telltale black rectangular border that signalled low frame rate( Samsung S7, latest android OS) The characters, especially the main character – Major – was low polygon and hardly an effort befitting a big budget VR production. See the video above and form your own opinion.

Now, we have Alien Covenant: In Utero, which quite frankly to me, is equally underwhelming and could have been much more.

As a reminder, from a technical point of view – I’m looking at anomalies and shortcomings that contribute toward breaking immersion, such as the alien’s hand floating through what looks like an umbilical cord (put your 3D glasses on and see the image). The still frame doesn’t do justice to when seen in the video.

But, it’s no sense critiquing if you can’t offer solutions (or so I’ve been told by those who love free lunches), so:

In a VR experience, Realism is relative:

In VR, the more you can offer realism – in context – the better the immersion. That phrase, ‘in context’, is key. It means that if the VR world is say, the world of a hedgehog in the beautifully done piece, Henry by ex-Oculus Studio… then stylized content and CG like rendering would befit the world, as done in Henry. There’s no immersion breaking experience there, in fact you’re immersed in a fantasy world.

Now, in Alien Covenant: In Utero, these claims are made about the Alien Covenant VR project in a blog post on Technicolor’s site:

“VR crews were sent on location to take scans of the props and sets to create an authentic and high-quality VR experience.” and 

“We had a lot of conversations at the very beginning about what it would take to create a high-image quality VR experience. It [...]

Beat Movie and OTT Content Piracy with VR

Thu, 25 May 2017 11:50:00 +0000


…is the bold stance and headline that made news recently when Orange is the new Black got pirated, and a ransom demand made. That, was indeed a bold move by Netflix to not give in, and as streaming media analyst Dan Rayburn of Frost & Sullivan stated on Wired:

The joy of binge-worthy TV hinges on knowing that other people also binge. A water cooler that only the Pirate Bay gathers around defeats the purpose.

“It’s not an experience,” says Rayburn. “People want to watch it with friends.”

Facebook knows the future is Social:

This is exactly what was being discussed during a talk at the OTTVSummit 2017. It also so happens that Facebook had invested an eyebrow raising (at least back in 2013-2014) amount in a company, called Oculus. Of course Facebook has a plan with VR.

Today, there’s already Netflix VR, Hulu VR, and we know from a job posting, Amazon Prime Video is soon going to have their OTT presence upgraded to VR. The important point here is:

“To combat content piracy – build community.

VR lets you do that”


That should be the mantra Telcos, OTT platforms, Movie Studios and Advertisers need to adopt. Let me expand on it…

The image above is from my slide-deck at the OTT Summit, and features the “inside” of the Netflix VR app. It’s your man-cave for lack of a better gender neutral term. (Netflix, give us customizable options, next?) In real life while I’m on my couch watching big screen TV, I can instinctively reach to my left and grab the landline to make a call – In Dubai, landline to landline calls are free. Now that Telcos are looking at an OTT content strategy, how about a “VR” phone that can be picked up to make free international calls; because VOIP?

A little incentive there, to get audiences to “log in” to the Telcos’ or OTT providers Virtual world.

Other ideas to beat Content Piracy:

First Day, First Show – would you rather watch a movie on a 5 inch screen or a virtual 10 foot Cinema screen? How about buy one SVOD ticket and via Facebook API integration, invite 4 more people free of cost to movie night in your VR den? You can talk to your virtual guests just like Hulu and Oculus have implemented with their social integration. See that EPG (magazine) on the Coffee table?  Why not update it with real world benefits – discounts, tickets, incentives.

In VR, seeing is believing. One needs to strap on a headset to experience, the experience of interacting with other people.

These ideas only scratch the surface of what can be done to yield tangible, real world benefits – To content owners – Safeguarding their ROI.

Even if pirates create their own VR ‘water cooler’, the incentives to stay legit for many people will be the real world benefits and the sense of “community” while binge watching. On a related note, yes I do occasionally burn a few [...]

Monetizing VR through OTT – ROI with VR

Fri, 19 May 2017 20:41:29 +0000

Below is the deck used during a masterclass on monetizing VR over Digital and OTT platforms at the recent OTTVsummit in Mumbai, India.

Click to download. (approx 6.5mb)

Picture from the OttvSummit 2017


On being VR’s “keeper” a.k.a, Hollywood’s still learning VR.

Sat, 25 Mar 2017 21:40:57 +0000


Graduated Stereo falloff in 360 – How to do it right:

As far back as 2014 (that’s like 10 in VR dog years), I’d described how graduated stereo falloff, could be used as a narrative storytelling tool for Cinematic VR. It’s safe to say that in 2014 everyone was learning VR. Even then, what I specifically had in mind is – you fade to black or cut to the next scene as your on-screen talent moves toward the 180 degree mark.

In the opening scenes of “My Brother’s Keeper” what we get is not even 180 degrees of stereoscopic VR while the rest of the scene is completely flat. This goes a lot against the idea of VR “immersing the audience” in a location. The anaglyph screenshot prepared above (click the image for a larger version) shows this.

I’ve drained the scene off color, so the areas of depth are more obvious – the areas showing red/cyan. If you are serious about stereoscopic 360 VR, keep a pair of red-cyan anaglyph glasses by your side. They’re the quickest way to look at and understand stereo visuals. Hang on to them as we’ll see one more glaring shortcoming in the shooting of this movie…

Before I go further… a Declaration/ Disclaimer:

My critique, is on the technical aspects of Cinematic VR – and rarely (if ever) goes into critique of story/acting. Secondly, if critique that’s being supplied with proof can’t be stomached, it’s best to stop reading and move to sites that gush at the fact that VR is a ‘new medium’ etc… or worse, if it elicits the “those who can’t do, preach” response – then rest assured, the remainder of this article won’t pander to such ill informed tastes. If all movie critics were to make movies…

..but getting back:

Shoot with synced cameras in VR:

That very same august 2014 article linked to above, had one more in-valuable piece of advice: make sure your stereoscopic VR/360 cameras are genlocked. GoPros, off the shelf, aren’t genlockable. Time code and slated sync is not “genlock sync.” See the video above for the subtle – yet  headache capable – effect that can occur in a VR headset when watching unsynced, especially stereoscopic, video.

Gopro do have the “Omni” that’s genlocked, but it’s a monosopic 360 rig. There are a few solutions out there for action camera sync, but that’s for another article.

What’s important is, My brother’s keeper, has a majority of scenes shot with a 180 degree rig – the easiest kind to have sync (it’s nothing more than a side-by-side stereoscopic pair of cameras with fish eye lenses) but it’s plain to see the cameras are unsynced.

Plain to see.. how? Whip out those anaglyph glasses again and take a look at the first image in this article. See the main character’s hand gripping the rifle? (the hand nearer the trigger) follow this hand a little lower diagonally and you’ll notice the rifle strap hurts the eye when viewed. This is only a still image, so look at the youtube video version [...]

Roundup of the latest Cinematic VR experiences: Feb 20th 2017

Tue, 21 Feb 2017 07:40:44 +0000

Text version below, for clarity:

Fifty Shades Darker: Masquerade Ball

The Good: – Hollywood is keen on “VR for PR” which is a good thing.

– Good Music and Sound Design.

The Bad: – It’s an eyesore when watching “Cinematic VR” where the scene goes flat as you look around (you’re at a Masqurade Ball!)

– 2D to 3D Conversion houses: In VR, the 3D screen is strapped to your face – you can tell badly done floor reflections as well as when the world outside the window is ‘pasted’ onto the window!

– In the picture above -the woman on the right has half her body go flat as she greets the couple at the ball.

NuVision: Episodic VR series.

The Good:

– Cinematic VR is going mainstream with demand rising for production of Episodic content.

– The story looks promising and could turn out to be a real VR page turner.

– This episode shows proof that seeing the human form and acting, up-close in VR, is what will draw audiences in*

The Bad:

– The Stereoscopy is a bit off: – This production needs a stereographer AND a Camera rig redesign.

– Massive need for Stereo QC (quality control)

– Scale if off – the hyperstereo in this espisode makes furniture look like lego pieces and people seem to be minifigures.

– *Just as HD initially had actors fearing closeups, bad acting will fear VR.

The Click Effect.

The Good:

– Underwater VR is not an easy task, and there were some good scenes captured here.

– Immersion factor is high…when it works. For non divers, this is the closest one could come to, to experiencing deep sea diving.

The Bad:

– Editors need to unlearn ‘the cut’ Not specifically whether to cut or not, but more lower level effects of VR on audiences.

– The first scene is good, then the whole production goes south the moment the first cross dissolve kicks in

– This film can literally lead to sea sickness because of the camera bobbing around as the divers leave the ship wreck.

– Stereo conversion in many shots leads to scale mismatches (divers go from larger than life to toy size in single scenes)

– Curators at film festivals need to up their tech skills for this Genre. VR has the power to immerse, yet also cause physical harm to audiences.

The Harbinger Trial.

The Good:

– Quite immersive. This isn;t really the same as the others, as it’s done in a Game Engine and CG only. Yet, there is story.

– Audience interaction is high and I can see such VR narrative experiences playing out well at IMAX VR, DREAMSCAPE and other “VR cinemas” that will begin to mushroom this year, worldwide.

The Bad:

– Despite it being dead easy compared to video based VR to control all aspects of the production…the Camera has you floating way above and feels unnatural.

So, there it is. My critique (mostly from a technical perspective) on some of the recent releases on the Oculus / Samsung Gear VR platform,

To those involved in the production of these experiences, I appreciate the work put in, and [...]

Cinematic VR and Instant Returns on Investment, Part II

Thu, 16 Feb 2017 12:48:17 +0000

(Note: Videos are mildly NSFW. Those without VR headsets can choose the anaglyph option and use red-cyan glasses)

“The proof is in the pudding,” to quote a more palatable one, than the overused; “Content is King”.

After an earlier article I’d written: “Insta-ROI and Cinematic VR,” I got a few emails from producers asking to explain more. One of them has accepted there’s no free lunch, and so I’ve scored a consultation gig.

However, it’s nice to have free pudding, so have a look at the video above – A test scene from the planned “Dirrogate:DeepVR” film and then, see a re-framed version in the next video later on, below.

Reframing VR: For Cinema, OTT platforms, and Television:

The biggest concern and question by investors looking at jumping into Cinematic VR films is, will there be instant ROI?

Never-mind the fact that Imax, Dreamscape, Sony, Warner Music, Steven Spielberg, Nextflix, Hulu…. have already dived in. So how is instant ROI guaranteed?

VRDC: Virtual Reframing – Director’s Cut.

As can be seen above, extracting a “Director’s cut” by virtual reframing is possible.

Now, if your story / narrative is good, that is exactly what today’s bite-sized entertainment hungry, generation want!

VR, by the nature of the medium, calls for short form storytelling- at least until people get used to longer duration headset wearing.

There are practical benefits to all stakeholders – Bandwidth comes at a premium to both providers, and audiences. Besides, to the attention spans of the Snapchat generation, satisfaction is derived in the form of a daily “fix” of short format entertainment that’s downloaded (helps device storage space too)

Another reason audiences are evolving to consuming short-form entertainment, is that there’s real costs involved when streaming live content to their mobiles.

So there you have it – Cinematic VR films are legacy enabled and so have an Instant-ROI feature built in. There’s no reason to lag behind while Spielberg, Imax, Disney and others are already lined up, forking that pudding!

The Secret to Insta-ROI with VR OTT

Thu, 09 Feb 2017 13:31:27 +0000

I’m going to let you in on a little secret that will either have you calling for an emergency brainstorming session if you’re the CEO of an OTT platform that’s under threat from Netflix, Hulu and Amazon Prime… or if you’re a savvy investor, you’ll realize why the big three (Nflix, Hulu, Ama) are so invested in VR.

SOCIAL CINEMA in VR : How Hulu jumped the curve.

Take a look at the video above. You should. It’s less than 2 minutes long and holds a key part of the secret and how I’m evangelizing (hustling?!) Cinematic VR to investors, producers and even brands/agencies attending workshops and masterclasses.

The Secret to Insta-ROI through VR-OTT

If the next video (above), hasn’t already given away the secret, let me spell it out: Future Proofed Content. No, not the market-speak or the buzzword version of that phrase (next to the other aggravating one: Content is king)… but really, Future proofing your content if it’s created in 360 VR.

In points:

Cinematic VR content is backward compatible. Yes, you can extract a “flattie”. A so-called, Director’s cut in 2k resolution from a 360 or VR filmed piece.

This gives instant compatibility for playback on current OTT platforms and Television and Cinema (2k extract, remember?!)

Open up Screen real-estate… when you’re comfortable.

Here’s a thought: What is Barco Escape? What is Imax VR? The trend shows that vanilla cinema is not enough. A VR headset is indeed an imax strapped to an audience’s face.

“Would you rather watch House of Cards or Westworld on a 6inch phone screen… or in your own Virtual Imax?”

When your OTT platform is VR ready (Hulu and Netflix are), so will your content library be, and you can roll out the original VR version of the movie/video from which the “flattie” was extracted.

In Asia, one OTT platform has had foresight and is testing the waters – Hotstar. They already have a limited version of the Hotstar app on the Samsung GearVR platform. There is nothing, in my opinion, that should be delaying them from taking a leaf out of Netflix’s and Hulu’s page – displaying regular programming on a virtual Imax like screen.

That’s what I’ve been saying to some of the OTT platform owners, during consultations. In the Middle East, there is one Telco who’s toying with VR via their OTT app. It’s cleverly hidden as an easter-egg, for now!

Meanwhile, I’ll leave this thought here…

VR is not antisocial… You won’t wear a headset during family time or in a bar.. You’ll crave Social VR when you’re away from Family and Friends.


360 Video is not ‘Cinematic VR’​…and Here’s why.

Wed, 01 Feb 2017 13:49:28 +0000

What’s the difference between 360 video and video based VR? Have a look at the video above – and if possible, in a VR headset.

If you’re viewing it on a PC monitor or Ipad or phone screen, the points being made won’t apply… Why?

When viewing this video on a cell/laptop/ipad screen, our senses adapt – from years of watching flat video. We start taking ‘depth cues’ from motion, parallax and our known knowledge of the real world to quickly come to a conclusion about such things as:

We’re not really on Aladdin’s floating carpet, but on a boat. At about 0:37, The boat will pass under the bridge. The camera is (we are) at a certain height above the body of water below us…

Now, view the video in a VR headset (as all VR video should be) and you’ll have a hard time telling if the top of the boat will pass under the bridge, or if indeed you’re on a magic carpet, floating on water.

At a recent Content exchange conference: DiscopDubai, during one of the outdoor networking sessions, a few of us were debating the pros and cons or rather the fad-or-not status of Virtual Reality, from a video entertainment perspective. The discussion soon drew quite a large number of delegates around us. One point that needed to be settled was that of the growing number of Video productions claiming to be VR, when in fact they should be called 360 video (or, as in the 1990s: Panoramic video or Quick Time VR)

To explain a bit more, I jumped on one of the cute boats that wind their way lazily down the waterway of the Madinat Jumeirah resort, on whose banks the conference’s informal networking sessions were taking place.

The video was done impromptu, run-and-gun style. The fact that it could be done this way, lends a clue to why there is so much 360 video masquerading as “VR video”.

It’s relatively easier to produce than stereoscopic 360 video, which I believe rightfully can claim the title of ‘cinematic VR’.

Does all VR video then, need to be shot stereoscopically? Of course not. Our binocular or stereopsis range is limited. After a certain distance, other cues kick in: parallax, shape, shadows and our prior knowledge of the world.


when viewing “VR” video in a headset, we’re suddenly in the middle of a virtual world…

…thanks to the large field of view of the headsets, (at least the good ones,) and that’s when conflicts arise. Our brain expects to be fed stereoscopic cues by the eyes in this make believe world too. But… none exist, and so you can’t tell whether the boat will pass under the bridge etc.

The next time you see VR video in a headset try to look for stereoscopic 360 video. Compared to vanilla 360 video, the difference will be like night and day.

For further reading, here’s an older article with a sample mono and stereoscopic versions of the same scene: ‘Presence in Cinematic VR“